City (pop., 2007 est.: 2,469,000), northeastern Iran. It is situated in the valley of the Kashaf River, at an elevation of 3,231 ft (985 m). It was damaged in a Mongol attack in 1220 and was sacked by Turkmen and Uzbeks in the 16th and 17th centuries. Nādir Shah (r. 1736–47) made Mashhad his capital. The city is the burial place of Hārūn al-Rashīd and a site of pilgrimage for Shīaynite Muslims visiting the tomb of the eighth Shīaynite imam, aynAlī al-Ridsubdotāhamzah.
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