See F. Keesing, The Menomini Indians of Wisconsin (1939, repr. 1971); L. Spindler, Menomini Women and Culture Change (1962).
North American Indian people who live mostly in northeastern Wisconsin, U.S., in a small portion of their traditional territory along the Menominee River at the present-day Wisconsin-Michigan border. Their language is a member of the Algonquian language family. At the time of first contact, the Menominee lived in villages of dome-shaped houses and collected wild plants, fished, and hunted to obtain food. Originally organized into clans, their social organization changed as a result of the fur trade, for which they scattered in mobile bands. In 1852 the U.S. government moved most of the tribe to a reservation in Wisconsin. In 1961 the government terminated federal status for the tribe; federal recognition resumed in 1973. Population estimates indicated more than 9,500 individuals of Menominee descent in the early 21st century.
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There were 78 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.1% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.53.
In the village the population was spread out with 33.8% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 111.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.6 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $45,972, and the median income for a family was $47,500. Males had a median income of $33,036 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the village was $14,518. About 6.7% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 3.8% of those sixty five or over.