(died 353 BC) Satrap (governor) of Caria in South Asia Minor. Nominally under the control of the Persian empire, he took advantage of upheaval in Asia Minor to gain independence. He was influential among the Greek cities of Ionia and instigated the revolt of Athens's allies in 357. He endowed his capital, Halicarnassus, with fine buildings. His sister and wife, Artemisia II, finished building his tomb, the Mausoleum. It was designed by the Greek architect Pythius and considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
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Mausolus (Greek: Μαύσωλος; also Maussollus) was ruler of Caria (377–353 BC). He took part in the revolt against Artaxerxes Mnemon (362), conquered a great part of Lycia, Ionia and several Greek islands and cooperated with the Rhodians and their ally in the Social War against Athens. He moved his capital from Mylasa – the ancient seat of the Carian kings – to Halicarnassus.
Mausolus was the eldest son of Hecatomnus, a native Carian who became the satrap of Caria when Tissaphernes died, around 395 BC. These Carian rulers embraced Hellenic culture. He is best known for the monumental shrine, the Mausoleum of Maussollos, erected for him by order of his sister and widow Artemisia; Antipater of Sidon listed the Mausoleum as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The architects Satyrus and Pythis, and the sculptors Scopas of Paros, Leochares, Bryaxis and Timotheus, finished the work after the death of Artemisia, some of them working, it was said, purely for renown. The term Mausoleum has come to be used generically for any grand tomb. Its site and a few remains can still be seen in the Turkish town of Bodrum.
An inscription discovered at Milas, the ancient Mylasa, details the punishment of certain conspirators who had made an attempt upon his life at a festival in a temple at Labranda in 353.