Marie Bracquemond (1841 in Morlaix – 1916 in Paris) was a French Impressionist artist described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of the "le trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt. However, her often omission from books on women artists indicate the success of her husband, Félix Bracquemond, in his campaign to thwart her development as an artist. His objection to her art was not on the basis of gender but on the style she adopted, Impressionism.
She began lessons in painting in her teens under the instruction of M. Wasser, "an old painter who now restored paintings and gave lessons to the young women of the town". She progressed to such an extent that in 1857 she submitted a painting of her mother, sister and old teacher posed in the studio to the Salon which was accepted. She was then introduced to Ingres who advised her and introduced her to two of his students, Flandrin and Signol. The critic Philippe Burty referred to her as "one of the most intelligent pupils in Ingres' studio". Marie later left Ingres' studio and began receiving commissions for her work, including one from the court of Empress Eugenie for a painting of Cervantes in prison. This evidently pleased, because she was then asked by the Count de Nieuwerkerke, the director-general of French museums, to make important copies in the Louvre.
Félix introduced her to new media and to the artists he admired, as well as older masters such as Chardin. She was especially attracted to the Belgian painter Alfred Stevens. Between 1887 and 1890, under the influence of the Impressionists, Marie's style began to change. Her canvases grew larger and her colours intensified. She moved out of doors, and to Félix's disgust, Monet and Degas became her mentors.
Marie Bracquemond participated in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1879, 1880, and 1886. In 1879 and 1880, some of her drawings were published in the La Vie Moderne. In 1881, she exhibited five works at the Dudley Gallery in London. Many of her best-known works were painted in her garden at Sèvres.
In 1886, Félix met Gauguin through Sisley and brought the impoverished artist home. He had a decisive influence on Marie and, in particular, he taught her how to prepare her canvas in order to achieve the intense tones she now desired.
Although she was overshadowed by her well-known husband, the work of the reclusive Marie Bracquemond is considered to have been closer to the ideals of Impressionism. According to their son Pierre, Félix Bracquemond was often resentful of his wife, brusquely rejecting her critique of his work, and refusing to show her paintings to visitors. In 1890, Marie, worn out by the continual household friction and discouraged by lack of interest in her work, abandoned her painting except for a few private works. One of her last paintings was The Artist's Son and Sister in the Garden at Sèvres.
She died in Paris in 1916.
Longing & constraint: a survey of women artists of the Impressionist movement reveals many similarities in their depictions of women who seem both at ease and subtly confined.
Sep 01, 2008; [FIGURE 1 OMITTED] This teeming, charming harvest of luxe and calme (but not volupte) brings together the pupils, disciples,...