Maria Amalia Christina
– September 27 1760
) was a princess
and as wife of Charles III of Spain
, Queen Consort of Spain
and Naples. .
She was born in Dresden, the daughter of Augustus III of Poland and Maria Josepha, herself daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
In 1738, at the age of 14, Maria Amalia married Charles of Bourbon, then King of the Two Sicilies. Despite the fact that this was an arranged marriage, the couple was very close and had many children.
Maria Amalia was a very cultivated woman, and it was she who introduced the production of porcelain in Naples. She also played an important role in the construction of the Caserta Palace. She was also a heavy tobacco smoker.
In 1759, Ferdinand VI of Spain, her husband's elder half-brother, died without issue, and the couple became King and Queen of Spain. That same year they left Naples for Madrid, leaving several of their children behind in Caserta. Her third-surviving son became Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, while his elder brother Carlos was groomed in Spain to inherit the Spanish crown (their oldest brother, Prince Philip, Duke of Calabria, was excluded from the succession due to his mental instability).
In September 1760, a year after arriving in Madrid, Maria Amalia died from tuberculosis. Her husband, who had become Charles III commented : "In 22 years of marriage, this is the first time Amalia displeases me". He never married again.
They had thirteen children; however, only seven reached adulthood.
- Maria Isabella Antonia (María Isabel Antonia) (1740-1742)
- Maria Josepha Antoinette (María Josefa Antonieta) (1742)
- Maria Isabella Anne (María Isabel Ana) (1743-1749)
- Maria Josepha Carmela (María Josefa Carmela) (1744-1801)
- Maria Louisa of Spain (1745-1792), Married Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- Philip (Felipe) (1747-1777), Duke of Calabria but excluded from succession to the throne due to mental disabilities.
- Charles IV (1748-1819), King of Spain, through whom the Spanish branch of Bourbons continues.
- Maria Theresa (María Teresa) (1749)
- Ferdinand I (Ferdinand III of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples) (1751-1825), founder of the Sicily branch of Bourbons.
- Gabriel (1752-1788), Married Marianne Victoria of Portugal (daughter of Maria I of Portugal) and had issue.
- Anna Maria (Ana María) (1754-1755)
- Anthony (Antonio Pascual) (1755-1817), Married his niece María Amalia, daughter of his brother, Charles IV. No issue.
- Francis Xavier (Francisco Javier) (1757-1771)