The lands of the Maralinga Tjarutja bear their own name. These lands, in South Australia's remote west, comprise Maralinga Tjaruta, one of the four local government areas of South Australia classified an Aboriginal Council (AC).
The Maralinga people had been moved from their lands in the 1950s to allow British nuclear tests. The Maralinga Tjarutja native title land was handed back to the Maralinga people in January 1985 under legislation passed by both houses of the South Australian Parliament in December 1984 and proclaimed in January 1985. Maralinga people resettled on the land in 1995 and named the main community Oak Valley Community.
A part of the land surveyed and known as Section 400 remains occupied by the Crown through a provision of the Act mentioned above, for up to 50 years. This land includes the area of land occupied by the Maralinga Township and the areas in which actual atomic tests were carried out.