Malkaush (also spelled Malkauns) is a raga in Indian classical music. It is one of the most ancient ragas of Indian classical music. The equivalent raga in Carnatic music is called Hindolam.

The name Malkaush is derived by the combination of Mal and Kaushik, which means he who wears serpents like garlands -- the god Shiva. The raga is believed to have been created by goddess Parvati (the wife of Shiva) to calm Shiva, when the lord Shiva was outraged and was not calming down after Tandav in rage of Sati's sacrifice.

Malkaush belongs to Shaivait musical school; in fact most pentatonic ragas belong to Shaivait musical school.

Arohana & Avarohana

Malkaush belongs to the Bhairavi thaat. Its notes are Sa, komal Ga, shuddh Ma, komal Dha, and komal Ni. In Western classical notation, its notes can be denoted as: tonic, minor third, perfect fourth, minor sixth and minor seventh. In raga Malkaush, Rishabh (Re - second) and Pancham (Pa - perfect fifth) are completely omitted. Its jaati is audav-audav (five-five, that is pentatonic).

Arohana : Sa g m d n S'
Avarohana : S' n d m g Sa

The best time for this raga is late night or rather before morning. The effect of the raga is soothing and intoxicating.

Vadi & Samavadi

The vadi swara is Madhyam (Ma) while the Samavadi swara is Shadaj (Sa).

Pakad or Chalan

Chalan: 'n S g S
'd 'n S m
g s g m g S

Film Songs

'Man Tarpat Hari Darshan Ko Aaj' (film Baiju Bawra), 'Aadha Hai Chandrama Raat Aadhi' (film Navrang), 'Chham Chham Ghunghroo Bole' (film Kaajal), 'Ankhiyan Sang Ankhiyaan Laagi Aaj', 'Balma Maane Na' (film Opera House) and 'Rang raliyaan karat sautan sang' (film Birbal My Brother) are a few popular Hindi film compositions based on Malkaush.


This is one of the very old ragas found in the Indian classical music system.

Important Recordings


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