refers to an absolute lack of magnesium
, the result of numerous conditions. This can generally be remedied by an alteration of diet
or oral supplements. However intravenous supplementation is necessary for more severe cases.
Possible symptoms and pathologies as a result of magnesium deficiency are widespread, but may include: Hypertension
, cardiovascular disease
, Vitamin K
deficiency, depressed immunity
, erectile dysfunction
, increased levels of stress
, and allergies
61% of the US population do not meet the US RDA for levels of magnesium. The kidneys are very efficient at maintaining body levels, however, in cases where the diet is deficient.
"Magnesium depletion" (ICD10 code ) should be distinguished from hypomagnesemia
, since the first refers to a disorder of magnesium metabolism
, and is much more difficult to treat. However, in the past, the terms have sometimes been used interchangeably. Magnesium deficiency can be present without hypomagnesemia
, and hypomagnesemia can be present without magnesium deficiency.
Causes of magnesium deficiency include alcohol abuse, poorly controlled diabetes, excessive or chronic vomiting and/or diarrhea. Certain drugs can also deplete magnesium levels such as osmotic diuretics, cisplatin, cyclosporin and possibly proton pump inhibitors. Also deficiency may occur in Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome.
For a more detailed discussion on the subject of magnesium metabolism and causes of magnesium deficiency see hypomagnesemia.