MKB "Fakel" (Russian: МКБ "Факел", "Torch")
is a Russian government-owned aerospace defense corporation located in Khimki
. It was founded in 1953 to facilitate development of guided surface-to-air missiles in response to a growing threat of US air attack on the Soviet Union and its allies. MKB "Fakel" developed missiles which were used in Soviet surface-to-air defense systems S-75
, 9K33 Osa
, and many other systems.
Missiles developed by MKB "Fakel" were the first in the world surface-to-air guided missiles successfully employed in military action. On May 1, 1960, American high altitude spy plane U-2 was shot down near Sverdlovsk by Fakel's 11D missile (S-75) while illegally flying over Soviet territory. Overall, missiles developed by MKB "Fakel" were employed in more than 30 countries, including Cuba, China, Vietnam and destroyed more than 2,500 of enemy aircraft.
In July 1958 the corporation was awarded an Order of Lenin for successful development of guided missiles for S-75 defense system.
In April 1981 it was awarded an Order of the October Revolution for successful development of guided missiles for S-300 defense system.