Louis-Philippe, called Babychou or Babochon by his mother, became crown prince at birth in Laeken. The baby, named for his maternal grandfather, Louis-Philippe of France, was baptised at the St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral in Brussels, by Engelbert Sterckx, the Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels.
Louis-Philippe died in Laeken before his first birthday of an inflammation of the mucous membranes. For King Leopold, the death of his son brought back memories of the death of his first wife, Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, in childbirth. "All the old aches are revived", wrote Queen Louise-Marie. The baby's tiny coffin, draped white velvet, was lowered into the vault of the Dukes of Brabant, in Brussels, and later transferred to join the remains of his parents in the royal crypt of the Church of Our Lady in Laeken.
Unlike subsequent heirs to the Belgian throne, Louis-Philippe was not Duke of Brabant; this title was not created for the heir to the throne until 1840. He was posthumously succeeded as crown prince upon the birth of his younger brother, Leopold, who would later succeed their father as Leopold II of Belgium.