List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations

This is a list of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations.

An ocular manifestation of a systemic disease is an eye condition that directly or indirectly results from a disease process another part of the body. There are many diseases known to cause ocular or visual changes. Diabetes, for example, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in those aged 20-74, with ocular manifestations such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema affecting up to 80% of those who have had the disease for 15 years or more. Other diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hypertension are commonly found to have associated ocular symptoms.

Systemic allergic diseases

Skin and mucous membrane diseases


Collagen diseases

Systemic viral infections

Systemic bacterial infections

Systemic protozoal infections

Systemic fungal infections

Systemic cestode and nematode infections

Chromosomal disorders and genetic syndromes

Hematologic diseases

Cardiovascular diseases

*Pre-eclampsia (Toxemia of pregnancy)

*Emboli and thrombi
*Central retinal artery occlusion
*Cardiac myxoma
*Cranial arteritis
*Sickle cell attack

*Carotid artery disease
*Arterial spasm (TIA)
*Diabetes mellitus
*Collagen diseases

*Use of hormonal contraception

Endocrine diseases

Gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders

Metabolic disorders

Musculoskeletal disease

Pulmonary diseases

Renal disease

Neoplastic diseases with ocular metastases


*Ovary or cervix
*Testis or prostate




  • Pavan-Langston, Deborah (1990). Manual of Ocular Diagnosis and Therapy. Little, Brown and Company.

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