While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or phytochemicals
The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods.
- Flavonoids (polyphenols) – red, blue, purple pigments.
- Quercetin – red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans.
- Gingerol – ginger.
- Kaempferol – strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, peas, brassicates, chives.
- Myricetin – grapes, walnuts.
- Resveratrol – grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts.
- Rutin – citrus fruits, buckwheat, parsley, tomato, apricot, rhubarb, tea.
- Anthocyanins (flavonals) and Anthocyanidins – red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables.
- Pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry.
- Peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach.
- Cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa.
- Delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- Malvidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- Isoflavones (phytoestrogens)
- Daidzein (formononetin) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
- Genistein (biochanin A) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
- Glycitein – soy.
- Coumestans (phytoestrogens)
- Phenolic acids
- Ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes.
- Gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy.
- Salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat.
- Tannic acid – nettles, tea, berries.
- Vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves.
- Capsaicin – chilli peppers.
- Curcumin – turmeric, mustard. (Oxidizes to vanillin.)
- Hydroxycinnamic acids
- Caffeic acid – burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple.
- Chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries.
- Cinnamic acid – aloe.
- Ferulic acid – oats, rice, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut.
- Coumarin – citrus fruits, maize.
- Lignans (phytoestrogens) – seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran (wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables.
- Silymarin – artichokes, milk thistle.
- Matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
- Secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
- Pinoresinol and lariciresinol – sesame seed, Brassica vegetables
- Tyrosol esters
- Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)
- Carotenes - orange pigments
- α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
- β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
- Lycopene – Vietnam Gac, tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots.
- Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
- Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
- Xanthophylls - yellow pigments.
- Canthaxanthin – paprika.
- Cryptoxanthin – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
- Zeaxanthin – wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
- Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
- Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, legumes, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear.
- Rubixanthin – rose hips.
- Limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil.
- Perillyl alcohol – citrus oils, caraway, mints.
- Saponins – soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa.
- Phytosterols – almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils.
- Tocopherols (vitamin E)
- omega-3,6,9 fatty acids – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts.
- Oleanolic acid - American pokeweed, honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, cloves, and many other Syzygium species.
- Ursolic acid - apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes.
- Betulinic acid - Ber tree, white birch, tropical carnivorous plants Triphyophyllum peltatum and Ancistrocladus heyneanus, Diospyros leucomelas a member of the persimmon family, Tetracera boiviniana, the jambul (Syzygium formosanum), and many other Syzygium species.
- Moronic acid - Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe
- Betaxanthins (non glycosidic versions)
Other organic acids
- Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
- Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds.
- Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes.
- Anacardic acid - cashews, mangoes.