This is as list of the rulers of the Principality of Capua
Lombard rulers of Capua
Gastalds and counts
(or counts) of Capua were vassals
of the princes of Benevento
until the early 840s, when Gastald Landulf began to clamour for the independence which Salerno
had recently declared. That caused a civil war in Benevento which did not cease for some ten years and by the end of the century Capua was definitively independent.
In 910, the principalities of Benevento
and Capua were united by conquest (Atenulf's) and declared inseparable. This, and the inevitable co-rule of sons and brothers, causes ceaseless confusion to any historian of the period, even more so to his readers.
- 910–943 Landulf III, co-ruled from 901 (see directly above)
- 943–961 Landulf IV the Red, co-ruled from 940 (see above)
- 961–968 Landulf V, co-ruling with his brother (perhaps to 969, see directly below), also co-ruled from 959 (see directly above)
- 961–981 Pandulf I Ironhead, co-ruling with his brother (see directly above), also co-ruled from 943 (see above), also Duke of Spoleto (from 967), Salerno (from 978), and Benevento (from 961)
In 982, the principalites were finally ripped apart by Pandulf Ironhead's division of his vast holdings and by imperial decree, but the chronology gets no less confusing.
Norman princes of Capua
These princes were of the Drengot
line and served as a counterpoise to the House of Hauteville
until it had finally lost all power. The chronology here, too, can be very confusing due to the rivalry between the Robert II and Roger II of Sicily
and his sons.
To the Kingdom of Sicily, where it became an appanage for second sons: