List of Choctaw Treaties is a comprehensive chronological list of historic agreements that directly or indirectly affected the Choctaw (an American Indian people) with other nations. Choctaw land was systematically obtained through treaties, legislation, and threats of warfare. Treaties were made with Great Britain, France, and Spain. Nine treaties were signed with the United States. Some treaties, like the Treaty of San Lorenzo, indirectly affected the Choctaws.
The Choctaws considered European laws and diplomacy foreign and puzzling. The most confusing aspect of treaty making was writing which was impressive for a people who have not developed a written system. Choctaw history, as with many Native Americans, was passed orally from generation to generation. Europeans needed treaties to satisfy their cultural laws and ease their consciences. During treaty negotiations the three main Choctaw tribal areas (Upper Towns, Six town, and Lower Towns) had a "Miko" (chief) to represent them. Spain had the earliest claims to Choctaw country which was followed by French claims starting in the late 1600s. The United States, following the Treaty of San Lorenzo, laid claim to Choctaw country starting in 1795.
By the early 1800s pressure from U.S. southern states, like Georgia, encouraged the procurement of Native American lands. The Treaty of Fort Adams was the first in a series of treaties that ceded Choctaw lands. The Choctaws were relocated from their homeland, now known as the Deep South, to lands west of the Mississippi River. Approximately 15,000 Choctaws made the move to what would be called Indian Territory and then later Oklahoma. About 2,500 died along the trail of tears. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek signed away the remaining tradition homeland to the United States. There would be three waves of removals starting in 1831. After the final wave of removal in 1833, nearly 6000 Choctaws chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi. The newly settled European-Americans persistently urged the Mississippi Choctaws to remove, but they refused. Although smaller Choctaw groups can be found throughout the U.S. south, Choctaws are mainly found in Oklahoma and Mississippi.
|Treaty||Year||Signed with||Where||Purpose||Ceded Land|
|Charleston||1738||Great Britain||Charleston, SC||Trade and Alliance||n/a|
|Mobile||1749||France||Mobile, AL||Trade and Alliance||n/a|
|Grandpre||1750||France||Choctaw Nation||Ended Choctaw Civil War||n/a|
|Augusta||1763||Georgia||Augusta, GA||Established "Indian/White" boundaries||n/a|
|Mobile||1783||Great Britain||Mobile, AL||Land Cession, Boundaries defined||n/a|
|Mobile||1783||Spain||Mobile, AL||Trade and Alliance||n/a|
|Charleston||1783||Great Britain||Charleston, SC||Trade and Amity||n/a|
|Pensacola||1784||Spain||Pensacola, FL||Trade and Alliance||n/a|
|Hopewell||1786||United States||Hopwell, SC||Southeastern Tribal Boundaries defined||n/a|
|San Lorenzo||1795||Between Spain and United States||San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain||The treaty, without Choctaw participation, put Choctaw country under U.S. control||n/a|
|Fort Adams||1801||United States||Mississippi Territory||Re-defined Choctaw cession to England and permission for Natchez Trace|
|Fort Confederation||1802||United States||Mississippi Territory||Boundary re-defined, and lands ceded||10,000 acres|
|Hoe Buckintoopa||1803||United States||Choctaw Nation||Small cession of Tombigbee River and redefined English treaty of 1765|
|Mount Dexter||1805||United States||Choctaw Nation (Mississippi)||Large cession from Natchez District to the Tombigbee Alabama River watershed|
|Fort St. Stephens||1816||United States||Fort St. Stephens (Alabama)||Ceded all Choctaw land east of Tombigbee River|
|Doak's Stand||1820||United States||Natchez Trace, Choctaw Nation (Mississippi)||Exchanged cession in Mississippi for parcel in Arkansas and prepare the Choctaws to become citizens of the United States|
|Washington City||1825||United States||Washington, D.C.||Exchanged Arkansas land for Oklahoma parcel|
|Dancing Rabbit Creek||1830||United States||Choctaw Nation (Mississippi)||Removal and granting U.S. citizenship|
|Bowles Village||1836||Republic of Texas||Texas Cherokees and Twelve Associated Bands-Yowani Choctaw (Texas)||Aquisition of Title for east Texas lands based upon previous 1822 Mexican grant|
|Choctaws and Chickasaws||1861||Confederate States of America||Creek Nation (Indian Territory)||Serve as protectorate, admit Indian Nations as Confederate states||Not Available Yet|