Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche, now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy. Ancestors of the the earliest Levett family in England, the de Livets were lords of the village of Livet, and undertenants of the de Ferrers, among the most powerful of William the Conqueror's Norman lords.
One branch of the de Livet family came to England during the Norman Conquest, nearly a thousand years ago, and were prominent in Derbyshire, Chester, and Sussex, where they held many manors, including the lordship of Firle. The name is Celtic, 'livet' meaning a swampy place traversed by water. But like most Anglo-Normans, the family's origins are probably mostly Viking.
Although the date of the family's arrival in England is unknown, the family name appears in the records of William the Conqueror. Ancient English deeds subsequently refer to many lands across Sussex as 'Levetts,' indicating family possession of broad swaths of Sussex countryside.
Like most medieval Norman families, the Levetts were dependent on the web of feudal hierarchy. They held their lands of overlords in return for knights service (commonly called Knight's fees). As their feudal overlords thrived, so did they; conversely, their fate was tied to the unpredictable fortunes of those same overlords.
The Levetts and their descendants eventually held land in Gloucestershire, Yorkshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, Kent, Bedfordshire and later in Ireland and in Staffordshire. The Anglicisation of this Norman French surname took many forms, including Levett, Levet, Lyvet, Livett, Delivett, Leavett, Leavitt and others.
Levett family members were early knights and Crusaders -- many members of both English and French branches of the family were Knights Hospitallers -- and they occupied a place in the English landed gentry for centuries. (Unlike the French branch of the family, no members of the English branch were enobled, although they intermarried with nobility and served as courtiers.)
A branch of the Levett family still occupies Milford Hall, a family home in Staffordshire, England, where a Levett descendant is nominated for High Sheriff of Staffordshire for 2009. Members of the family formerly occupied Wychnor Park (or Hall) and Packington Hall, two country mansions in the same county, where English artist James Ward (artist) painted three Levett children playing in 1811.
As with many families of Anglo-Norman extraction, some branches thrived, while others fell on hard times. The vicissitudes of character -- and the collapsing feudal order -- played havoc with the fortunes of some family members. The lordship of Firle, East Sussex, for instance, passed from the family in 1440 on the indebtedness of then-lord Thomas Levett. The bankrupt Levett also forfeited his inherited lordship of Catsfield, East Sussex.
Others fared just as poorly. John Levett, a guard on the London to Brighton coach, was convicted of petty theft and expelled to Australia in the nineteenth century. English records reveal Levetts embroiled in bastardy cases or relegated to poorhouses. As with Thomas Hardy's hapless d'Urbervilles, noble Norman lineage was no guarantor of rectitude, ability or fate.
Some Levetts moved abroad in search of opportunity. A Levett relation, a British clerk in India, was friend to Rudyard Kipling and a minor Victorian novelist. Another was an English factor living in Livorno, Italy, shuttling back and forth to Constantinople for the Levant Company. (Francis Levett later moved to British East Florida, became a planter and the first to grow Sea Island cotton in America.) The family became part of the British Empire's expanding grasp. In the eighteenth century John Levett, born in Turkey to an English merchant father and brother of planter Francis, became alderman and Mayor of Calcutta, India.
Over the generations, Levett descendants spanned the social ranks: one family relation, an English clergyman, is memorialized in Westminster Abbey where he dropped dead reading the Ninth Commandment; another, an assistant pantry steward aboard an ocean liner, perished when the RMS Titanic sank.
One family member was a unschooled Yorkshireman who, having worked as a Parisian waiter, then trained as an apothecary. Robert Levet returned to England, where he treated denizens of London's seedier neighborhoods. Having married an apparent grifter and prostitute, Levet was taken in by the poet Samuel Johnson, who eulogized him as "officious, innocent, sincere, Of every friendless name the friend. (While Samuel Johnson adopted one Levet as boarder, he was apologizing to another better-placed Levett who held the mortgage on Johnson's mother's home in Lichfield.)
In a few cases Levetts were forced by religious belief to flee England for the colonies. Among these were John Leavitt and Thomas Leavitt, early English Puritan immigrants to Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respectively, whose names first appear in seventeenth-century New England records as Levet or Levett (No paternal family relationship existed between the two men).
Today there are many Levetts living outside England, including in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Ireland, where the first 'de Livet' ventured in the thirteenth century as part of the Norman invasion, becoming one of Dublin's earliest mayors. The spelling of the name varies from place to place.
Members of the original de Livet family continue to reside in France. The Normandy branch traces its descent to Jean de Livet, chevalier and banneret in 1216 to King Philip II of France, builder of the first Louvre fortress in Paris. Chevalier Thomas de Livet, noted Crusader and son of Jean, was knighted by King Philip II's successor, King Louis IX of France in 1258.
The de Livet family was among the ancient noble families of France, or noblesse d'epee. (The French revolution stripped the hereditary French nobility of its feudal privileges.) The English branch of the de Livet (Levett) family claims descent from Jean de Livet, seigneur of Livet (now Jonquerets-de-Livet) in 1040, prior to the Norman Conquest.
Members of the Levett family include-
- A.E. (Ada Elizabeth) Levett, renowned medieval scholar, vice principal, St Hilda's College, Oxford, professor at the Westfield College,University of London, d. 1932
- Capt. Berkeley John Talbot Levett, Scots Guard, witness in the infamous Royal Baccarat Scandal
- Christopher Levett, English explorer of New England, born in York, 1586
- F. M. Jane Levett, Oxford graduate (Lady Margaret Hall), early professor in logic, Glasgow University, translator (as M.J. Levett), Plato's Theaetetus, d. 1974
- Francis Levett (merchant), English tobacco merchant who married the sister of Sir John Holt (judge), the Lord Chief Justice of England
- Francis Levett (planter), British planter who first planted Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in America
- Gilbert de Lyvet (Levett), early Lord Mayor of Dublin, Ireland 1233
- Gordon Levett, Royal Air Force veteran who aided Israel in its establishment as a state
- Dr. Henry Levett, eminent physician at London Charterhouse who wrote a pioneering tract on smallpox, 1710
- William Howard Vincent Hopper Levett, well-known English cricketer
- James Levett, Mayor, Waterford, Ireland, 1610
- John Livet, Lord of the Manor of Firle, Sussex, 1316
- John Levett, Salehurst, Sussex, purchaser of Bodiam Castle, 1588
- John Levet, London merchant, member of the Virginia Company of London, 1609
- John Levett, naturalist, author, "The Ordering of Bees: Or, the True History of Managing Them," London 1634
- John Levett, Mayor, Waterford, Ireland, 1649
- John Leavitt, English Puritan, founding deacon, Old Ship Church, Hingham, Massachusetts, 1681
- John Levett, Tory member of Parliament, Staffordshire, 1761-1762
- John Levett, merchant, Alderman, Mayor, Calcutta, India, 1768-1770
- John Levett (athlete), born Battersea, twice champion runner of England, ran 10 miles in 52:35, 1852
- John Levett, prize-winning poet, (winner, British National Poetry Competition), Norfolk, England
- Keppel Bagot Levett, one of the first casualties of the BSAP (British South Africa Police) in World War II, died in active service, March 1941
- Maud Sophia Levett (Mrs. William Synnerton Byrd Levett), author, writer on religious themes, Milford Hall, Milford, Staffordshire
- Percival Levett, merchant, Chamberlain and Sheriff of the city of York, 1597
- Richard Levette, English burgess of Calais, France, 1422
- Richard Levett, Mayor, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, d. 1618
- Sir Richard Levett, merchant, Lord Mayor of London (1699), owner of Kew Palace
- Second Lieutenant Richard Byrd Levett of Milford Hall, The King's Royal Rifle Corps, killed in action in France, World War I, 1917
- Robert Levet, native of Hull, Yorkshire, impoverished apothecary who lived with Samuel Johnson, author of a famous poem eulogizing Levet
- Theophilus Levett, Lichfield town clerk and early friend and correspondent of Samuel Johnson
- Theophilus John Levett, Member of Parliament, Staffordshire 1880-1885
- Theophilus Basil Percy Levett, son of MP Theophilus John Levett, Lieut., Coldstream Guards, JP, barrister, died 1929
- Thomas Levett, monk, Battle Abbey, Battle, Sussex, pensioned at the Dissolution of the Monasteries, 1538
- Thomas Levett, High Sheriff of Rutland, England, 1639
- Rev. Thomas Levett (rector), rector of Whittington, Staffordshire for 40 years, owner of Packington Hall
- Walter de Livet, third mayor of Chester, England, 1246
- William Levett (vicar), rector of Buxted, Sussex who established the iron foundry industry in Sussex, died 1554
- Rev. Dr. William Levett (dean), principal, Magdalen Hall, Oxford University, later Dean of Bristol, died 1694
- William Levett (courtier), courtier to King Charles I of England who accompanied the King on the day of his execution and became embroiled in controversy over whether the King had penned the Eikon Basilike
Three towns were named after the Levett family-
Places associated with the Levett family
These places were associated with the Levett family-
- Bodiam Castle, Bodiam, East Sussex
- Firle, East Sussex
- Normanton, West Yorkshire
- All Saints Church, Normanton, Normanton, West Yorkshire
- St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex
- Buxted, East Sussex
- Roche Abbey, South Yorkshire
- Milford Hall, Staffordshire
- Wychnor Park, Staffordshire
- Kew Palace, Richmond, Surrey
- St James' Church, High Melton, High Melton, South Yorkshire
- Breamore House, Hampshire
- Packington Hall, Whittington, Staffordshire
- Seal of John Livet, Lord of Firle, Sussex, Lewes Castle Museum, Sussex Archaeological Collections, 1866
- Roger de Livet, ca. June/July 1171, Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II, Robert William Eyton, Great Britain, 1878
- Some variations of the name Levett
- Origins of the Levett name from Lewis Loyd, The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families
- A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain, Bernard Burke, 1863
- Levett, Packington Hall, Mansions and Country Seats of Staffordshire and Warwickshire, Alfred Williams, Walter Henry Mallett, 1899
- The Norman People and Their Existing Descendants in the British Dominions and the United States of America, Henry S. King & Co., 1874
- Levet of Sussex, Le Neve's Pedigrees of the Knights Made by King Charles II, etc., Peter Le Neve, 1873
- Levett of Sussex Coat of Arms, YeOldeSussexPages
- Johannes Lyvet, Hastings, Sussex, Summoned to meet at Westminster, 1417, King Henry V, Sussex Archaeological Collections, Sussex Archaeological Society, 1881
- Coat of Arms, Levett of High Melton and Normanton, Yorkshire, quartered with Savile, St. James' Church, High Melton
- Levett of High Melton and Normanton, Thurcroft web
- Levett of High Melton and Normanton, Yorkshire, New England Historic and Genealogical Register, Henry Fitz-Gilbert Waters, 1913
- Thomas Levett-Prinsep, Derbyshire
- Tomb Chests of Levetts, All Saints Church, Normanton, The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 1879
- Levett of Normanton, Yorkshire, Walks in Yorkshire; Wakefield and its Neighbourhood, W.S. Banks, 1871
- Levett, The Genealogist's Guide, George William Marshall, 1893
- Alumni Oxoniensis: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1500-1714
- The Visitations of Sussex Made and Taken in the Years 1530, College of Arms, 1905
- John Levet (eventually Leavitt), Hingham, MA, 1661 deed from Native Americans, Suffolk Deeds, Suffolk County, Mass., 1894
- Moses Levet (eventually Leavitt), Exeter, NH, Minutes of Council and Assembly of New Hampshire, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, Great Britain Public Record Office, 1621-1698, London
- Richard Levette, Burgess of Calais, A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds in the Public Record Office, Great Britain Public Record Office, 1902
- Robert Lyvet, Knight, Sussex, 1286, Calendar of Charters and Documents Relating to the Abbey of Robertsbridge, Baron Philip Sidney De L'Isle, 1873
- Sir John Levett, chaplain to Ryther, The Will of Thomas Ryther of Ryther, Yorkshire, Esq., July 1, 1527, Testamenta Eboracensia, John Will Clay, 1884
- Order of King Edward I to his Irish Magnates, John de Lyvet, 1302, A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, Sir Bernard Burke, 1866
- Levet of Sussex, A Compendious History of Sussex, Mark Antony Lower, Lewes, Sussex, 1870
- Dictionnaire des fiefs, seigneuries, chatellenies, etc. de l'ancienne France, Paris, 1862
- History of de Livet family, Normandy, Dictionnaire de la noblesse contenant les généalogies, l'histoire & la chronologie des familles nobles de France, Francois Alexandre Aubert de La Chesnaye-Desbois, 1775
- "Sons of the Conqueror: Descendants of Norman Ancestry," Leslie Pine, London, 1973
- "The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families," Lewis C. Loyd, David C. Douglas, John Whitehead & Son Ltd., London, 1951
- "The Normans," David C. Douglas, The Folio Society, London, 2002
- "Regesta Regum Anglo Normannorum, 1066-1154," Henry William Davis, Robert J. Shotwell (eds.), 4 volume, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1913
- "The Levetts of Staffordshire," Dyonese Levett Haszard, privately printed
- Levett was the name given by Alfred Hitchcock to the villain in his first film, The Pleasure Garden, a 1925 silent movie
- One branch of the family spell their name Livett, and produced five mayors of Hastings in the sixteenth century. These Livetts shared a coat-of-arms with the Sussex Levetts, except they changed their motto to read (in Latin): "Cruce Non Leone Fides" -- "I put my faith in the Cross and not in the Lion." One wonders what prompted the editorial comment.
- The family name was carried into other English families through intermarriage, yielding the double-barreled names Levett-Scrivener, Levett-Prinsep and Levett-Yeats
- Alfred, Lord Tennyson, a vicar's son, put it best:
"Howe'er it be, it seems to me
'Tis only noble to be good;
Kind hearts are more than coronets,
And simple faith than Norman blood."