Definitions

Loa

Loa

Loa, longest river of Chile, 275 mi (443 km) long, flowing S from the Andes, N Chile, then W and N through the Atacama Desert, before turning W to the Pacific Ocean. It is not navigable but affords some water supply and hydroelectric power for copper and nitrate-mining communities in its vicinity.

The Loa (also Lwa or L'wha) are the spirits of the Vodou religion practiced in Haiti, and other parts of the world. They are also referred to as the Mystères and the Invisibles. They are somewhat akin to saints or angels in Western religions in that they are intermediaries between Bondye (Bon Dieu, or good god)—the Creator, who is distant from the world—and humanity. Unlike saints or angels however, they are not simply prayed to, they are served. They are each distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes, distinct sacred rhythms, songs, dances, ritual symbols, and special modes of service. Contrary to popular belief, the loa are not deities in and of themselves; they are intermediaries for a distant Bondye.

Syncretism

As a way to keep their European masters from interfering, and to appease the authorities who prevented them from practising their own religions, the African slaves in Haiti syncretised the Loa with the Roman Catholic saints - so Vodoun altars will frequently have images of Catholic figures displayed. For example, Papa Legba is alternately St. Peter or St. Lazarus, Ayizan is Saint Clare, and so on. Syncretism also works the other way in Haitian Vodou and many catholic saints have become Loa in their own right, most notably St Philomena, St Michael the Archangel and St John the Baptist.

Rituals

In a ritual the Loa are summoned by the Houngan (Priest) Mambo (Priestess) or Bokor (Sorcerers) to take part in the service, receive offerings, and grant requests. The Loa arrive in the peristyle (ritual space) by mounting (possessing) a horse (ritualist) - who is said to be "ridden." This can be quite a violent occurrence as the participant can flail about or convulse before falling to the ground, but some Loa will mount their horses very quietly - Ayizan is one such Loa.

Certain Loa display very distinctive behaviour by which they can be recognised, specific phrases, and specific actions. As soon as a Loa is recognised, the symbols appropriate to them will be given to them. For example Erzulie Freda will be given a mirror and a comb, fine cloth or jewellery; Legba will be given his cane, straw hat and pipe; Baron Samedi will be given his top hat, sunglasses and a cigar.

Once the Loa has arrived, fed, been served, and possibly given help or advice, they leave the peristyle. Contrary to the Western perception of possession, a Loa has no need to remain in the horse (possessed ritualist). Certain Loa can become obstinate, for example the Ghede are notorious for wanting just one more smoke, or one more drink, but it is the job of the Houngan or Mambo to keep the spirits in line while ensuring they are adequately provided for.

Nanchons of lwa

There are many families or "nanchons" (nations) of Loa - Rada (also Radha), Petro (also Pethro, Petwo), Nago, Kongo and Ghede (Also Guede, or Gede)to name but a few.

Rada lwa

The Rada Loa are generally the older, more beneficent spirits. They include Legba, Loko, Ayizan, Dhamballah Wedo and Ayida-Weddo, Erzulie Freda, La Sirène, and Agwe. Their traditional colour is white (as opposed to the specific colours of individual Loa).

Petro lwa

The Petro Loa are generally the more fiery, occasionally aggressive and warlike Loa. They include Ezili Dantor, Marinette, Ogoun, and Kalfu (Carrefour). Their traditional colour is red.

Kongo lwa

Originating from the Congo region of Africa, these spirits include the many Simbi loa, it also includes the much dreaded Marinette, a fierce and much feared female loa.

Nago

Originating from Nigeria (specifically the Yoruba speaking tribes) this nanchon includes many of the Ogun spirits.

Ghede lwa

The Ghede are the spirits of the dead. They are traditionally led by the Barons (La Croix, Samedi, Cimitière, Kriminel), and Maman Brigitte. The Ghede as a family are loud, rude (although rarely to the point of real insult), sexual, and usually a lot of fun. As those who have lived already, they have nothing to fear, and frequently will display how far past consequence and feeling they are when they come through in a service - eating glass, raw chillis, and anointing their sensitive areas with chilli rum for example. Their traditional colours are black and purple.

List of Lwa

A selection of Loa follows:

See also

External links

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