Johns

Johns

[jonz]
Hopkins, Johns, 1795-1873, American financier and philanthropist, founder of Johns Hopkins Univ., b. Anne Arundel co., Md. In 1819 he founded his own commission firm, later known as Hopkins Brothers, and also went into banking. He later had a large part in the growth of the Baltimore & Ohio RR, of which he became a director in 1847. His cognizance of Baltimore's lack of medical facilities in times of epidemic and his own scant education led him to bequeath, a few years before his death, $7 million for the founding of a free hospital and Johns Hopkins.

See biography by H. H. Thom (1929).

Johns, Jasper, 1930-, American artist, b. Augusta, Ga. Influenced by Marcel Duchamp in the mid-1950s, Johns attempted to transform common objects into art by placing them in an art context. Along with his close friends Robert Rauschenberg, John Cage, and Merce Cunningham, Johns eschewed the idea of the artist-hero and embraced the experimental, the accidental, and the everyday—aesthetic approaches that became extremely influential in contemporary arts. His flags and target images executed from 1954 to 1959 heralded the pop art movement. Other recurring motifs, which continued into the 1960s, include his beautifully delineated numerals, letters, and maps of the United States. Acclaimed for his painterly touch, Johns based his technique on the informal brushwork and texture of abstract expressionism, sometimes attaching literal elements such as rulers and brooms to the canvas. His bronze castings, such as Beer Cans (1960), are also derived from common objects. His critically acclaimed abstract crosshatch paintings of the 1970s were followed by the allusion-filled, self-referential works of the 1980s and 90s, e.g., the four Seasons (1985-86), which use recurrent motifs as symbols to pull the viewer into engagement with the works. Many of his spare paintings of the early 2000s incorporate real or painted catenaries (curves created by cords hanging from two points), others echo the flagstonelike motifs he used several decades earlier. Throughout his career, Johns has also created drawings and a variety of prints.

See K. Varnedoe, ed., Jasper Johns: Writings, Sketchbook, Notes, Interviews (1996); studies by R. Bernstein (1985), M. Rosenthal (1988), G. Boudaille (1989), F. Orton (1994), J. Yau (1996), and J. Weiss (2007).

(born May 15, 1930, Augusta, Ga., U.S.) U.S. painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He began his career as a commercial artist, producing displays for New York City shop windows. In 1958 he had his first one-man exhibition, a rousing success. The paintings Johns went on to produce depict commonplace, two-dimensional subjects such as flags, targets, maps, numbers, and letters of the alphabet. He was able to raise these objects to the level of icons through his paint handling and manipulation of surface texture, which he obtained through the encaustic technique. In their willful and ironic banality and their rejection of emotional expression, these early works were a radical departure from the then-dominant Abstract Expressionist style. Johns's unabashed depiction of commonplace emblems and objects was emulated by many Pop art artists. From 1961 he began to attach real objects to his canvases. In the 1970s he produced paintings composed of clusters of parallel lines that he called “crosshatchings”; in the 1980s he experimented with figuration.

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Private university in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded as a graduate school in 1876 through an endowment supplied by the Baltimore merchant Johns Hopkins (1795–1873). It became coeducational after a group of women, in 1893, provided funds for the creation of a medical school. Today its school of medicine and the affiliated Johns Hopkins Hospital constitute one of the nation's leading medical research centres. Besides medicine, the university has schools of arts and sciences, engineering, public health, nursing, music, international studies, and continuing education.

Learn more about Johns Hopkins University with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel county, Md., U.S.—died Dec. 24, 1873, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. merchant and financier. He worked with an uncle as a wholesale grocer before establishing Hopkins Brothers wholesalers with his brothers in 1819. The firm soon prospered in several states. It freely accepted payment for goods in whiskey, which it then sold as Hopkins' Best. Hopkins retired in 1847 a wealthy man, though he continued investing in Baltimore real estate and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In his will he left $7 million to fund the establishment of Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital; he also endowed an orphanage for African American children.

Learn more about Hopkins, Johns with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 15, 1930, Augusta, Ga., U.S.) U.S. painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He began his career as a commercial artist, producing displays for New York City shop windows. In 1958 he had his first one-man exhibition, a rousing success. The paintings Johns went on to produce depict commonplace, two-dimensional subjects such as flags, targets, maps, numbers, and letters of the alphabet. He was able to raise these objects to the level of icons through his paint handling and manipulation of surface texture, which he obtained through the encaustic technique. In their willful and ironic banality and their rejection of emotional expression, these early works were a radical departure from the then-dominant Abstract Expressionist style. Johns's unabashed depiction of commonplace emblems and objects was emulated by many Pop art artists. From 1961 he began to attach real objects to his canvases. In the 1970s he produced paintings composed of clusters of parallel lines that he called “crosshatchings”; in the 1980s he experimented with figuration.

Learn more about Johns, Jasper with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel county, Md., U.S.—died Dec. 24, 1873, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. merchant and financier. He worked with an uncle as a wholesale grocer before establishing Hopkins Brothers wholesalers with his brothers in 1819. The firm soon prospered in several states. It freely accepted payment for goods in whiskey, which it then sold as Hopkins' Best. Hopkins retired in 1847 a wealthy man, though he continued investing in Baltimore real estate and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In his will he left $7 million to fund the establishment of Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital; he also endowed an orphanage for African American children.

Learn more about Hopkins, Johns with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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