Joel S.A. Hayward
(born 1964), is a New Zealand military historian
who has worked in the United Kingdom
since 2004. He is best known for his published works on the use of air power by the German military during World War II
, his 2003 biography of Horatio Lord Nelson
, and a controversy over his 1993 M.A. thesis on the historiography
of Holocaust denial in which it was charged that he was a Holocaust denier
. Hayward is Head of Air Power Studies at King's College London
and, as of 1 April 2007, is Dean
of the Royal Air Force College, Cranwell
. In August 2007 the Royal Air Force appointed him a Director of the Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies
. He holds fellowships
from the United States Air Force
and the Federal Government of Germany
Hayward was born on 27 May 1964
, New Zealand
to John and Lorraine Hayward and given the name Stuart Andrew Hayward.
In 1986, he married Kathleen Michie at St. Kentigerns Presbyterian Church in the Christchurch suburb of New Brighton
. In 1989, Hayward changed his first name to Joel
, following what he would later explain was a "choice to go through life with a first name that has deep spiritual significance for me."
Hayward developed an interest in Jewish history and the Hebrew language as a result of his maternal grandmother's self-identification as a Jew. He gained a strong reading ability in Hebrew and made trips to Israel, and was a member of a national organization with both Jewish and Christian membership, The New Zealand Friends of Israel, Inc.
Education at University of Canterbury
Bachelor of Arts
In 1988 Hayward enrolled with the University of Canterbury
in Christchurch to pursue a Bachelor of Arts degree, which he received on 8 May
with papers taken primarily in the Departments of History and Classics.
In 1989, while pursuing his undergraduate studies, Hayward took part in founding an association called Opposition to Anti-Semitism Inc.(OAS), which he headed until 1991, when he left the group. He later stated he left the group due to a personality clash with another member; in a biographical note to an article he published in January 1992 in an Australian Jewish publication in January 1992, he said he left the organization due to pressure of work. While with OAS, Hayward published several articles on anti-Semitism and became interested in the historiography of Holocaust denial.
Master of Arts
Following the award of his B.A., Hayward commenced a Master's Degree
program at University of Canterbury. He first considered a thesis
topic in Ancient History, but was informed by faculty in the Classics Department that he would need to study another year of Greek
first. After consultation with Dr. Vincent Orange, a Reader (equivalent to Associate Professor) in the History Department who became his thesis supervisor, Hayward settled on the topic of the historiography of Holocaust denial
. Hayward later stated that this topic combined three of his great interests: World War II
, the German language
, and Jewish history
. Besides his thesis, Hayward was also required for the M.A. degree to complete four honours papers, which he wrote during 1992. The four honours grades together constituted fully half of Hayward's master's program. All four papers underwent examination both internally and externally before their grades (an A-, two As, and an A+) were confirmed.
The bulk of Hayward's thesis was written in 1991, prior to his four honours papers, with the conclusion written in early 1993. Entitled The Fate of Jews in German hands: An Historical Enquiry into the Development and Significance of Holocaust Revisionism,, the thesis underwent examination by internal examiner Dr. Vincent Orange of University of Canterbury's History Department and external examiner Professor John Jensen of Waikato University before its grade of A+ was confirmed by Professor W. David McIntyre, also of University of Canterbury's History Department.
Hayward's M.A. in History with First Class Honours was conferred on 7 May 1993.
Hayward went on to pursue a Ph.D. degree, also at University of Canterbury, again under the supervision of Dr. Vincent Orange. He initially considered to enroll for the Ph.D. with a biography of well-known Holocaust denier David Irving
as a dissertion topic, apparently at Irving's suggestion, but instead embarked on a study of German air operations during World War II
. In 1994, the U.S. Air Force
Historical Research Agency, located within the Air University
at Maxwell Air Force Base
, awarded him a research scholarship to conduct research for his dissertation in its archives; he subsequently received a research fellowship from the Federal Government of Germany
which enabled him to conduct doctoral research in the German Military Archives in Freiburg
Hayward was awarded a Ph.D. in 1996. His thesis, Seeking the Philosopher's Stone: Luftwaffe Operations during Hitler's Drive to the East, 1942–1943 became the basis for his first book, Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler’s Defeat in the East 1942-1943., which was published in 1998.
Academic and professional career
In June 1996 Hayward joined the History Department at Massey University
(Palmerston North Campus) as a Lecturer in Defence and Strategic Studies, receiving promotion to Senior Lecturer in August 1999. He specialized in the theoretical and conceptual aspects of modern warfare, airpower, joint doctrines, and manoeuvre warfare. He continued in that position until June 2002.
While at Massey, Hayward in 1999 was organizer of New Zealand's largest defence conference, held 21-22 August at Massey University's Turitea campus. The conference, entitled "Coalitions and Conflict — The Transition of Warfare 1899 to 1999 and Beyond," focused on coalition warfare and was jointly hosted by Massey University and the New Zealand Army's Military Studies Institute. Hayward was conference convenor of Massey's third annual defence conference in August 2000, again co-hosted by the New Zealand Army, with discussion focusing on the trend towards integrating the three armed services (army, air force, and navy) under unified command. Hayward also acted as editor of the conference proceedings, which took its title from the conference's theme, Joint Future? The Move to Jointness and Its Implications for the New Zealand Defence Force.
From 1997 to 2004 he was also lecturer at the Officer Cadet School of the New Zealand Army, where he taught general military history from Alexander the Great to the Balkan War, and at the Command and Staff College of the Royal New Zealand Air Force, where he taught airpower history and doctrine and supervised advanced research in military history. During the same period he also taught strategic thought at the Royal New Zealand Naval College. He also wrote academic articles for general military and military history publications.
Work in the United Kingdom
Hayward has lived and worked in the United Kingdom
since 2004, first teaching strategy and operational art at the Joint Services Command and Staff College
. In November 2005 he became the head of the newly created Air Power Studies Division, a specialist unit of twelve Defence Study academics established by the Royal Air Force
and King's College London
at the Royal Air Force College, Cranwell
. Hayward was appointed Dean of the RAF College, Cranwell in April 2007. He is a Director of the Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies. He holds fellowships
from the United States Air Force
and the Federal Government of Germany
Controversy over M.A. thesis
Hayward's M.A. thesis was opposed even before it was completed. The university was contacted by members of Hayward's own group, Opposition to Anti-Semitism Inc (OAS) who had in 1991 recorded Hayward making statements which in their view constituted Holocaust denial
. OAS stated that Hayward had argued that Hitler did not personally plan the Holocaust and that the "final solution" was a very brutal policy of "forced expulsion". Their intervention was rejected by the university which went on to assess the M.A. thesis and consider it worthy of the highest grade. Dr. Orange, who both supervised and assessed the dissertation, summarised its conclusion in the words "Hayward’s thesis is that the Nazis did not attempt the systematic extermination of Jews during the Second World War. In particular, he finds the evidence that gas chambers were built and used for this purpose unconvincing."
The dissertation was made unavailable for public study until 1999. When it became available, it ignited controversy. Hayward was again accused of Holocaust denial. In 2000, at the request of the New Zealand Jewish Council, the University of Canterbury convened a "Working Party" which issued a report admonishing the university for inadequately supervising Hayward's work. The report found that Hayward's thesis was "seriously flawed" but did not "establish dishonesty" on his part. Subsequent to the issuance of the Working Party's report, the university apologized to the New Zealand Jewish community, as Hayward also had earlier in the year. Hayward has repudiated his thesis, but Holocaust deniers continued to cite the thesis as evidence of academic support for their positions. Holocaust denier David Irving once praised Hayward's work as a "landmark in the turning of the tide in the favour of historical revisionism".
Hayward has authored or co-authored a number of journal articles pertaining to military matters, including "Stalingrad: An Examination of Hitler’s Decision to Airlift" which the U.S. Air Force
published in both English and Spanish.
Hayward is the author of four books of military history, including Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler’s Defeat in the East 1942-1943 (1998 and subsequent editions). An assessment of aerial warfare at the Battle of Stalingrad, Stopped at Stalingrad was favorably reviewed in the Times Literary Supplement and the journal War in History Hayward's biography of naval commander Horatio Lord Nelson, For God and Glory: Lord Nelson and His Way of War (2003), likewise received positive notices, with one reviewer recommending it as "a fresh and original contribution" on Lord Nelson that could also serve as a reference companion for viewers of the film "Master and Commander" based on the Patrick O'Brian novels set during the "Age of Nelson."
A work-in-progress, A "Bomb and Pray" War: Explaining Yugoslavia's Stubborn Resistance to NATO Coercion in 1999, examining the military concepts of coercion, deterrence, and the effects based approach through a conflict-specific analysis of the Kosovo War, is due to be published in 2008.
Fiction and poetry
In 2003, Totem Press, a New Zealand publisher based in Palmerston, New Zealand
published Hayward's Jenny Green Teeth and Other Short Stories
(which the Evening Standard
reviewed as "superb") as well as a volume of poetry called Lifeblood
(which the Evening Standard
reviewed as "memorable and insightful"). Hayward has made both volumes available as free downloads through his website.
Graduate studies work
- (1993). The Fate of Jews in German Hands: An Historical Enquiry into the Development and Significance of Holocaust Revisionism. Thesis (M.A.). University of Canterbury, 1993.
- (1996). Seeking the Philosopher's Stone: Luftwaffe Operations during Hitler's Drive to the East, 1942–1943. Ph.D. thesis. University of Canterbury, 1996.
Journal articles (selection)
This is a selected bibliography of peer-reviewed articles.
- (1995). "Hitler's Quest for Oil: The Impact of Economic Considerations on Military Strategy, 1941–42." The Journal of Strategic Studies 18(4): 94-135. December 1995. Reprinted in Jeremy Black, ed., The Second World War, Volume I: The German War 1939–1942 (London: Ashgate, 2007), pp. 441–482.
- (1997). "Stalingrad: An Examination of Hitler’s Decision to Airlift." Airpower Journal 11(1): 21–37. Spring 1997. Also published by the U.S. Air Force in a Portuguese translation as "Estalingrado: Um Exame da Decisão de Hitler a Respeito do Transporte Aéreo."
- (1997). "The German Use of Airpower at Kharkov, May 1942." Air Power History 44(2): 18–29. Summer 1997.
- (1997). "Von Richthofen's 'giant fire-magic': The Luftwaffe's Contribution to the Battle of Kerch, 1942." The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 10(2): 97–124. June 1997.
- (1998). "A Case Study in Effective Command: An Analysis of Field Marshal Richthofen's Character and Career." New Zealand Army Journal 18: 7–18. January 1998.
- (1999). "NATO's War in the Balkans: A Preliminary Analysis." New Zealand Army Journal 21: 1–17. July 1999.
- (1999). "A Case Study in Early Joint Warfare: An Analysis of the Wehrmacht's Crimean Campaign of 1942." The Journal of Strategic Studies 22(4): 103–130. December 1999. Also in German translation as "Eine Fallstudie früher integrierter Kriegführung: Eine Analyse des Krimfeldzuges der Wehrmacht im Jahre 1942." Reprinted in Jeremy Black, ed., The Second World War, Volume I: The German War 1939–1942 (London: Ashgate, 2007), pp. 483–510.
- (2000). "Too Little, Too Late: An Analysis of Hitler's Failure in August 1942 to Damage Soviet Oil Production." The Journal of Military History 64(3): 769–794. July 2000. Also in Spanish translation as "Demasiado Poco, Demasiado Tarde: Un Análisis del Fracaso de Hitler en Agos-to de 1942 de Dañar la Producción Pe-trolífera Soviética." Reprinted in Jeremy Black, ed., The Second World War, Volume I: The German War 1939–1942 (London: Ashgate, 2007), pp. 511–536.
- (2001). "Horatio Lord Nelson's Warfighting Style and the Maneuver Warfare Paradigm." Defence Studies 1(2): 15–37. Summer 2001.
- (2002). "Prayers Before Battle: The Spiritual Utterances of Three Great Commanders." US Army Chaplaincy Journal (Winter-Spring 2002), pp. 32-40.
- (2002). "Current and Future Command Challenges for New Zealand Defence Force Personnel." Australian Defence Force Journal 155: 39–45. July/August 2002.
- (2000). Adolf Hitler and Joint Warfare. Military Studies Institute Working Papers Series No. 2/2000. Military Studies Institute, New Zealand Defence Force. (44 pp.)
- (1998). Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler’s Defeat in the East 1942-1943. Modern War Studies series. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700611460.
- (2000). (edited). A Joint Future? The Move to Jointness and its Implications for the New Zealand Defence Force. Massey University, Centre for Defence Studies.
- (2003). For God and Glory: Lord Nelson and His Way of War. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1591143519.
- (2003). (edited with Glyn Harper). Born to Lead? Portraits of New Zealand Commanders. Auckland: Exisle Publishing. ISBN 0908988338.
- (2006). Stalingrad. Pen & Sword Battleground series. London: Millennium. ISBN 1844154742.
- (Expected Fall or Winter 2008). A "Bomb and Pray" War: Explaining Yugoslavia's Stubborn Resistance to NATO Coercion in 1999.
Fiction and poetry
Conference papers and presentations