Many people consider Ji Han Jae to be the founder of hapkido, while others will credit his teacher, Choi Yong Sul, who referred to his art as 'yawara' or 'yu kwon sool'. It is commonly believed that it was Ji who first started using the name hapkido for the techniques he was teaching at that time. Suh Bok Sub, the first student of Choi, however states in a 1980 interview that it was Jung Moo Kwan who first used the term to refer to the art as well as the symbol of the eagle to represent the art. Regardless, much the curriculum and techniques that we associate with hapkido today is heavily marked by changes that were implemented by Ji Han Jae and his senior students.
One of the most significant changes in the art which was the work of Ji Han Jae occurred in conjunction with Kim Moo Hong (also rendered Kim Moo Woong or Kim Moo Hyun) who was also a student under Choi Yong Sul. After studying with Choi, Kim went to a Buddhist temple and learned a local kicking art there. Traveling to Seoul in 1961 he lived and trained with Ji for a period of 8 months and together, implementing the kicking methods they had both learned, they finalized the kicking curriculum for hapkido, significantly expanding it to include kicks to higher targets, spinning kicks and jumping kicks, none of which were originally part of the system taught by Choi Yong Sul.
In addition to this Ji Han Jae's original Sung Moo Kwan shared space with people who trained in other arts, including Western boxing. Ji and his senior students developed tactics for dealing with techniques of boxing, tang soo do, taekwondo and judo and implemented them into the curriculum.
Leaving Taegu for his hometown of Andong in 1956 Ji Han Jae opened up his first school, the An Moo Kwan, still calling his art Yu Kwon Sool at this time. His earliest students from this period were Kwon Tae-Man (who teaches In California today), Yu Yong-Wu, and Oh Se-Lim (current president of the Korea Hapkido Federation).
After less than a year he decided to relocate to Seoul, the nation's capital, in 1957. There he founded the Sung Moo Kwan, which would become the an influential 'kwan', or school of hapkido, producing a great many of the important teachers of the art. His first student was Hwang Duk-Kyu (founder of the Korean Hapkido Association) followed shortly after by Myung Kwang-Sik (founder of the World Hapkido Federation), Kim Yong-Jin, Jung Won Sun (Retired 2007-taught in Rockford, Illinois) and others. In 1958 students Han Bong Soo (of Billy Jack movie fame and founder of the International Hapkido Federation), Choi Sea-Oh (first man to teach hapkido in the U.S.) and Myung Jae Nam (Founder of the Korea Hapki Federation, the Korea based International Hapkido Federation and Hankido). It was around this time that Ji began to use the name 'hapkido' to promote the art, shortened from the original 'Hapki Yu Kwon Sool' name employed at the first school run by Choi Yong Sul and Suh Bok Sub in Teagu in 1951.
In 1961, Kim Moo Hong came to visit Ji and they developed many of the kicking tactics the art is known for.
In 1963, Ji Han Jae was a founding member of the first attempt to create a large organization which would include hapkido. Called the Korean Kido Association (Daehan Kido Hwe) Choi Yong Sul was elected the first chairperson with the organizations first constitution authored by Ji, Choi and Kwon Jang. Its purpose was to promote martial arts to the public school system, police officers and government officials. Ji apparentally was instrumental in organizing this group however Choi appointed another of his top students, Kim Jung Yoon, to a position above Master Ji greatly diminishing his influence.
By 1965, Ji had received a position as hapkido instructor for the presidential guard at the Blue House and he thereby became acquainted with Park Jong-Kyu the Head of Security Forces for the country. Unhappy with his lack of input in the Daehan Kido Hwe, with political connections and an ever growing support from his Sung Moo Kwan students he decided to form his own organization the Korea Hapkido Association (Daehan Hapkido Hyub Hwe). Kim Woo-Joong, the president of the Dae Woo corporation, was elected the KHA's first president.
Later in 1973, seeking to consolidate three of the larger hapkido organizations which had grown up over the years, he united his organization with the Korean Hapkido Association, of his contemporary Kim Moo Hong, and the Korea Hapki Association, of one of his former senior students, Myung Jae Nam, to form the large and influential Republic of Korea Hapkido Association (Daehan Min Kuk Hapkido Hyub Hwe).
Ji Han Jae's star began to rise quickly when he started teaching hapkido to the president's bodyguards in the South Korean Blue House. In 1979 however, the Korean president, Park Chung Hee was assassinated by Kim Jae-gyu, head of the Korean CIA, and many things changed.
After the assassination of President Park most of those that were close to Park resigned. Included were the presidential bodyguards and the martial arts instructors of the bodyguards. Ji was one of the many that resigned.
In the ensuing struggle for power, many of those that had been in positions of power during the reign of President Park now found themselves without position, power or influence. In many cases those that held positions under President Park were now singled out as targets for legal action, whether justified or not.
In one such case wealthy businessmen had made financial contributions to martial arts organizations, as was the norm. Unfortunately, in several instances the contributions were not properly accounted for. In one case in particular, Ji and his organization were brought up on charges of tax fraud. Even though Ji was generally viewed as not guilty, he was given a prison term of one year. The judge in the case later explained that it was really beyond his control and that if Ji did not go to jail on this minor tax fraud charge, he would no doubt continue to be charged with other offenses until he was sent to prison on something else, perhaps something more serious.
Ji's philosophical view on the matter is that it was worthwhile to experience a year in prison and learn about a side of life very few people experience. He also stated that he was able to further develop the spiritual side of his Sin Moo, 'higher mind', hapkido concept while meditating in the prison environment.
Oh Se-Lim, one of the earliest students of the art under Ji, was elected the new president of the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association. He re-christened the organization the "Daehan Hapkido Hyub Hwe", a name used in one of hapkido's former organizations over which Ji presided and Oh had been a founding member. The 'Korea Hapkido Federation' (KHF) became the preferred rendering in English. The Korea Hapkido Federation remains one of the most influential of the many hapkido organizations existing in Korea today. To this day the KHF is still run mostly by students of Ji's original Sung Moo Kwan.
In 1984 Ji Han Jae moved to the United States and founded Sin Moo Hapkido. Before he left Korea a former student, Myung Jae Nam head of the International H.K.D Federation, awarded Ji Han Jae a 10th Dan.
The proper title for master Ji now is DoJu Ji. DoJu implies founder as Ji is the founder of sin moo hapkido, if not hapkido itself.
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