Janet

Janet

[zha-ne for 1; jan-it for 2]
Janet: see Clouet, Jean.
Janet, Pierre, 1859-1947, French physician and psychologist. As director (1890-98) of the laboratory of pathological psychology at Salpětrière and as professor of experimental and comparative psychology at the Collège de France from 1902, he made important contributions to the knowledge of mental pathology and the origins of hysteria through the use of hypnosis. In 1904 he founded the Journal de psychologie normal et pathologique, to which he contributed numerous articles. Among his important works were L'Automatisme psychologique (1889), in which he founded automatic psychology, and Les Obsessions et la psychasthénie (1903), which contains the first description of psychasthenia. Major Symptoms of Hysteria (1907) contains lectures delivered at Harvard. He wrote also Principles of Psychotherapy (1924), Psychological Healing (1925), and Cours sur l'amour et la haine (1933).
Frame, Janet (Janet Paterson Frame Clutha), 1924-2004, New Zealand novelist, b. Dunedin. Frame's complex, disturbing novels are marked by startling images and masterful language. Often drawn from her own years of institutionalization in psychiatric hospitals and her rescue from a scheduled lobotomy (after a misdiagnosis of schizophrenia), they depict disturbed and often visionary people living on the edge of madness or death. These themes are especially vivid in her first published work, a book of short stories entitled The Lagoon (1951), and her first two novels, Owls Do Cry (1957) and Faces in the Water (1961). Frame's other works include a volume of poems, The Pocket Mirror (1967); the short-story collection The Reservoir and Other Stories (1966); and a children's book. In all, Frame wrote a total of 12 novels, including The Rainbirds (1968), Intensive Care (1970), Daughter Buffalo (1972), Living in the Maniototo (1979), The Carpathians (1988), and a 1963 work, Towards Another Summer, which was not published until 2007.

See her autobiographical trilogy, To the Is-land (1982), An Angel at My Table (1984), and The Envoy from Mirror City (1985); M. King, Wrestling with the Angel: A Life of Janet Frame (2000) and An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame (2002); studies by P. Evans (1977), J. Delbaere, ed. (1992), J. D. Panny (1993, rev. ed. 2002), G. Mercer (1994), M. Delrez (2002), S. Oettli-van Delden (2003), and M. Wikse (2006); biographical film, An Angel at My Table (1990), dir. by J. Campion.

Scudder, Janet, 1873-1940, American sculptor, b. Terre Haute, Ind., studied at the Art Academy of Cincinnati, with Lorado Taft at the Art Institute of Chicago, and in Paris. Her fountains and other garden figures, usually joyous, playful children, are widely known. Among them are the Frog Fountain (Metropolitan Mus.); the Tortoise Fountain (Peabody Inst., Baltimore); and Seated Faun (Brooklyn Mus., N.Y.).

See her autobiography, Modeling My Life (1925).

Reno, Janet, 1938-, U.S. attorney general (1993-2001), b. Miami, Fla.; grad. Harvard Law School (1963). As assistant state's attorney (1973-76) and state's attorney (1976-93) for Dade Co., Fla., she became known for her attention to children's rights, drug cases, and juvenile justice reform. In 1993 she was appointed U.S. attorney general by President Clinton, becoming the first woman to hold the office. In her first year in office she came under national scrutiny for her role in the Waco, Tex., shootout between federal officers and Branch Davidians. Under Reno, the Justice Dept. took a relatively unaggressive stance on many law-enforcement issues, while pursuing a number of high-profile antitrust cases. She was the longest-serving attorney general of the 20th cent. Reno announced her candidacy for the 2002 Florida governor's race in Sept., 2001.

(born Aug. 28, 1924, Dunedin, N.Z.—died Jan. 29, 2004, Dunedin) New Zealand novelist, short-story writer, and poet. After an impoverished childhood, she trained as a teacher. Her first book was the story collection The Lagoon (1951). Several times committed to mental institutions, she narrowly escaped undergoing a frontal lobotomy. Her novel Owls Do Cry (1957) incorporated poetry and prose in its investigation of the border between sanity and madness. Her many other novels, several of which draw on Maori legends, include Scented Gardens for the Blind (1963) and The Carpathians (1988). One of her three volumes of memoirs, An Angel at My Table (1984), was filmed by Jane Campion.

Learn more about Frame (Clutha), Janet (Paterson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 1485—died circa 1540, Paris, Fr.) French painter. He was chief painter to Francis I and produced many pastel portraits of members of the French court. Clouet was one of the best 16th-century portrait painters, both incisive and delicate in the psychological characterization of sitters. His drawings are simple, broad, and subtle; his paintings are fresh in colour, subdued in modeling, and minute in execution. He was celebrated in his lifetime as the equal of Michelangelo. His son François Clouet (circa 1515–72) took his place as official painter to Francis I in 1540.

Learn more about Clouet, Jean with a free trial on Britannica.com.

JANET is a private British government-funded computer network dedicated to education and research. All further- and higher-education organisations in the UK are connected to JANET, as are all the Research Councils; the majority of these sites are connected via 20 metropolitan area networks across the UK. The network also carries traffic between schools within the UK, although many of the schools' networks maintain their own general Internet connectivity. The name was originally a contraction of Joint Academic NETwork but it is now known as JANET in its own right.

It is linked to other European and worldwide NRENs through GEANT, has a private connection to its equivalent CERNET in China and peers extensively with other ISPs at Internet Exchange Points in the UK. Any other networks are reached via transit services from commercial ISPs.

JANET is operated by JANET(UK), formerly known as UKERNA (the United Kingdom Education and Research Networking Association), who are also responsible for the .ac.uk and .gov.uk domains. It is funded by JISC, the Joint Information Systems Committee.

History

JANET developed out of a number of local and research networks dating back to the 1970s. By 1980, a number of national computer facilities (ULCC London, UMRCC Manchester, Rutherford Laboratory serving the Science and Engineering Research Council community), each with their own star network had developed. There were also regional networks centred on Bath, Edinburgh and Newcastle, where groups of institutions had pooled resources to provide better computing facilities than could be afforded individually. These networks were each based on one manufacturer's standards, were mutually incompatible, and overlapping. In the early 1980s a standardisation and interconnect effort started, hosted on an expansion of the SERCnet X.25 research network. The system first went live in April 1983, hosting about 50 sites with line speeds of 9.6 kbit/s. In the mid-80s the backbone was upgraded to a 2 Mbit/s backbone with 64 kbit/s access links, and a further upgrade in the early 1990s sped the backbone to 8 Mbit/s and the access links to 2 Mbit/s, making JANET the fastest X.25 network in the world.

The JANET effort resulted in the standardisation known as the Coloured Book protocols, which provided the first complete X.25 standard. The naming scheme used on JANET (JANET NRS) had similarities to the Internet's Domain Name System, but with the domains specified in the reverse order, e.g. UK.AC.HATFIELD.INFSC1 instead of infsc1.hatfield.ac.uk. There had been some talk of moving JANET to OSI protocols in the 1990s, but changes in the networking world meant this never happened.

JIPS and SuperJANET

In January 1991 the JANET IP Service (JIPS) was set up as a pilot project to host IP traffic on the existing network. Within ten months the IP traffic had exceeded the levels of X.25 traffic, and the IP support became official in November. Today JANET is primarily a high-speed IP network.

In order to address speed concerns, several hardware upgrades have been incorporated into the JANET system. In 1989 SuperJANET was proposed, to re-host JANET on a fibre optic network. Work started in late 1992, and by late 1993 the first 14 sites had migrated to the new 34 Mbit/s ATM system. SuperJANET also moved solely to IP.

In 1995 SuperJANET2 started, adding 155 Mbit/s ATM backbones and a 10 Mbit/s SMDS network encompassing some of the original JANET nodes. JANET's mandate now included running metropolitan area networks centred on these sites.

SuperJANET3 created new 155 Mbit/s ATM nodes to fully connect all of the major sites at London, Bristol, Manchester and Leeds, with 34 Mbit/s links to smaller sites around the country.

In March 2001 SuperJANET4 was launched. The key challenges for SuperJANET4 were the need to increase network capacity and to strengthen the design and management of JANET to allow it to meet a similar increase in the size of its userbase.

SuperJANET4 saw the implementation of a 2.5 Gbit/s core backbone from which connections to regional network points of presence were made at speeds ranging between 155 Mbit/s to 2.5 Gbit/s depending upon the size of the regional network. In 2002 the core SuperJANET4 backbone was upgraded to 10 Gbit/s.

SuperJANET4 also saw an increase in the userbase of JANET with the inclusion of the Further Education Community and the use of the SuperJANET4 backbone to interconnect schools' networks. The core point of presence (Backbone) sites in SuperJANET4 were Edinburgh, Glasgow, Warrington, Reading, Bristol, Portsmouth, London and Leeds.

In October 2006 the SuperJANET5 project was launched after £29 million of investment. It provides a 10Gbit/s backbone, with an upgrade path to 40GBit/s over the next few years. The new backbone as a result of the SuperJANET5 project is a hybrid network offering, providing both a high speed IP transit service and private bandwidth channel services provisioned over a dedicated fibre network. It is designed not only to fully accommodate the requirements of the traditional JANET user base - all research institutes, universities and further education - but also to meet the needs of a new userbase in the UK's primary and secondary schools.

Regional Networks

The JANET network is implemented through 20 regional network operators (RNOs) which connect universities, colleges and schools to the JANET network. Most RNOs are operated as independent entities working under contract to JANET(UK), though JANET(UK) operates a small number of RNOs directly.

Each RNO covers a specific geographical area, as of 2007 the following regional networks are connected to JANET:

  • AbMAN The Aberdeen Metropolitan Area Network
  • C&NLMAN The Cumbria And North Lancashire Metropolitan Area Network
  • Clyde-net The Glasgow and Clydeside Network
  • EaStMAN The Edinburgh and Stirling Metropolitan Area Network
  • EastNet The Eastern Regional Area Network
  • EMMAN The East Midlands Metropolitan Area Network
  • FaTMAN The Fife and Tayside Metropolitan Area Network
  • Kentish MAN The Kent Metropolitan Area Network
  • LMN The London Metropolitan Network
  • LenSE The Learning Network South East
  • NNW Network North West
  • MidMAN The Midlands Metropolitan Area Network
  • NIRAN The Northern Ireland Regional Area Networking
  • NorMAN The North East Metropolitan Area Network
  • NWMAN The North Wales Metropolitan area Network
  • SWERN The South West England Regional Network
  • SWMAN The South Wales Metropolitan area Network
  • TVN The Thames Valley Network
  • UHIMI The University of the Highlands and Islands Millennium Institute Network
  • YHMAN The Yorkshire and Humberside Metropolitan Area Network

See also

References

External links

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