James Webb Throckmorton (February 1, 1825 April 21, 1894) was an American politician who served as Governor of Texas from 1866 to 1867 during the early days of Reconstruction. He also served as a United States Congressman from Texas from 1875 to 1879 and then again from 1883 to 1889.
During his term in the governor's office, Throckmorton's lenient attitude towards former Confederates and his attitude towards civil rights ran afoul of the Reconstruction politics of the Radical Republicans in Congress. He drew the ire of the local military commander, Maj. Gen. Charles Griffin, who soon persuaded his superior, Philip H. Sheridan, to remove Throckmorton from office and replace him with a Republican and loyal Unionist, Elisha M. Pease.
As the Radical Republicans began to wane in their influence in the mid 1870s, Throckmorton was elected to Congress representing Texas's 3rd Congressional District. He later served the 5th District in the 1880s.
He died from a fall after becoming frail due to kidney disease.