James Guillaume (February 16 1844 - November 20 1916) was a leading member of the Jura federation of the First International, the anarchist wing of the International. Later, Guillaume would take an active role in the founding of the Anarchist St. Imier International.
Guillaume is perhaps best known for the enormous four-volume work entitled L'Internationale: Documents et Souvenirs which documents the anarchist position in the First International. Guillaume also wrote a biography of Mikhail Bakunin and edited much of his collected works.
Guillaume played a key role in Peter Kropotkin's conversion to anarchism.
In his 1876 essay, "Ideas on Social Organization," Guillaume set forth his ideas regarding social organization in a post-revolutionary society, expressing the collectivist anarchist position he shared with Bakunin and other anti-authoritarians involved in the First International, writing that "Whatever items are produced by collective labor will belong to the community, and each member will receive remuneration for his labor either in the form of commodities (subsistence, supplies, clothing, etc.) or in currency." Only later will it be possible to progress to a communist system where distribution will be according to need: "When, thanks to the progress of scientific industry and agriculture, production comes to outstrip consumption, and this will be attained some years after the Revolution, it will no longer be necessary to stingily dole out each worker’s share of goods. Everyone will draw what he needs from the abundant social reserve of commodities, without fear of depletion; and the moral sentiment which will be more highly developed among free and equal workers will prevent, or greatly reduce, abuse and waste.