James Fenner (22 January 1771 - 17 April 1846) was an American politician who served as an United States Senator as well as the Governor of Rhode Island (on three separate occasions). He was the son of Arthur Fenner, the fourth governor of Rhode Island.
Fenner was born in Providence, Rhode Island. He graduated from Brown University in 1789, and was married to Sarah Whipple Jenckes (his first cousin, once removed) on 17 November 1792. He served as United States senator from 1805 to 1807, then gave up his senatorship to become Governor of Rhode Island, two years after his father died in office. Fenner served as governor from 1807 to 1811, from 1824 to 1831, and from 1843 to 1845. In his final term, Fenner became the first governor to serve under the Rhode Island Constitution, adopted in 1842.
Fenner died in his mansion "What Cheer" in 1846, and was interred in the North Burial Ground in Providence.
Fenner had four children with his wife, Sarah Jenckes: