JP-4 is a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. It is a flammable transparent liquid with clear or straw color, and a kerosene-like smell. It evaporates easily and floats on water. Although it has a low flash point if a lit match is dropped into JP-4, ignition does not occur. JP-4 freezes at , and its maximum burning temperature is .
JP-4 is a nonconductive liquid, prone to build up static electricity when being moved through pipes and tanks. As it is volatile and has a low flash point, the static discharge may cause a fire. Since the mid 1980s, an antistatic agent was added to the fuel to lower the charge buildup and decrease the corresponding risk of fires. Flow rates must be controlled, and all the equipment used must be electrically interconnected and well grounded.
The desire for a less flammable, less hazardous fuel led the U.S. Air Force to phase out JP-4 in favor of JP-8; the transition was completed by the fall of 1996.
Small refiners given reprieve to convert from JP-4 gasoline. (replacement of military jet fuel; gasoline reformulation regulations)
Jan 05, 1994; WASHINGTON -- Small refiners hoping to make gasoline instead of military jet fuel were given the break they needed in the final...
Aviation fuel: changes in the air. (U.S. jet fuel and aviation gas market; includes related story on U.S. Air Force conversion from JP-4 to JP-8 jet fuel)
Nov 01, 1991; Aviation fuel marketing has taken a turn to greater complexity, causing some firms to ask themselves if they really want to...