The Isenheim Altarpiece is an altarpiece painted by the German artist Matthias Grünewald between 1512 and 1516. It is on display at the Unterlinden Museum at Colmar, Alsace, now in France.
By far his greatest, as well as his largest work, it was painted for the Monastery of St. Anthony in Isenheim near Colmar (then in Germany), which specialized in hospital work. The Antonine monks of the monastery were noted for their treatment of sufferers of skin disease, such as ergotism, symptoms of which are displayed by figures including the crucified Christ in the altarpiece.
The altarpiece has two sets of wings, displaying three configurations. The first view shows a Crucifixion scene, flanked by images of Saint Anthony
and Saint Sebastian
. There is a predella
with a Lamentation of Christ
, which remains in the second view also. When the outermost wings are opened, the second view shows scenes of the Annunciation
, the original subject of Mary bathing Jesus to the accompaniment of an Angelic choir
(or various other titles), and the Resurrection
. The innermost view shows the Temptation of Saint Anthony
and the Meeting of Saint Anthony and the Hermit Paul
to the sides, and a pre-existing carved gilt-wood altarpiece by Nicolas Hagenau of about 1490. Now the altarpiece has been dis-assembled (and sawn through) so that all the views can be seen separately, except that the original sculpted altarpiece is no longer flanked by the panels of the third view, which are instead shown together. Carved wood elements at the top and bottom of the composition were lost in the French Revolution
, when the whole painting survived nearly being destroyed.
The iconography of the altarpiece has several unusual elements, several derived from closely following the acounts left by Saint Bridget of Sweden
of her mystical visions. These had long had a significant influence on art, especially on depictions of the Nativity of Christ
, a scene not included here. The crucifixion includes Saint John the Baptist
, long dead by Gospel chronology.