(IL-10 or IL10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine
This cytokine is produced primarily by monocytes and to a lesser extent by lymphocytes. This cytokine has pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It down-regulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II antigens, and costimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. This cytokine can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the function of this cytokine as an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract.
A study in mice has shown that interleukin-10 is also produced by mast cells, counteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction.
It is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ
made by cells such as macrophages
and the Type 1 T helper cells
IL-10 also displays potent abilities to suppress the antigen presentation capacity of antigen presenting cells.
However, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells, mast cells and B cells.
It is mainly expressed in monocytes
and Type 2 T helper cells (TH
2), mast cells
, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and also in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells.
It is released by cytotoxic T-cells to inhibit the actions of NK cells during the immune response to viral infection.
Gene and Protein Structure
In humans, the IL-10 gene is located in chromosome 1 and consists of 5 exons.
The IL-10 protein is a homodimer . Each subunit is 178 amino acids long.