inflorescence

inflorescence

[in-flaw-res-uhns, -floh-, -fluh-]

Cluster of flowers on one or a series of branches, which together make a large showy blossom. Categories depend on the arrangement of flowers on an elongated main axis (peduncle) or on sub-branches from the main axis, and on the timing and position of flowering. In determinate inflorescences, the youngest flowers are at the bottom or outside (e.g., onion flowers). In indeterminate inflorescences, the youngest flowers are at the top or in the center (e.g., snapdragon, lily of the valley, and Astilbe flowers). Other indeterminate inflorescences are the dangling male and female catkins of oak trees, the spike of barley, and the flat head (capitulum) of the dandelion.

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An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Strictly, it is the part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed and which is accordingly modified. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes.

The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the main stem holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel.

The fruiting stage of an inflorescence is known as an infructescence.

A flower that is not part of an inflorescence is called a solitary flower and its stalk is also referred to as a peduncle.

General characteristics

Inflorescences are described by many different characteristics including how the flowers are arranged on the peduncle, the blooming order of the flowers and how different clusters of flowers are grouped within it. These terms are general representations as plants in nature can have a combination of types.

Bracts

Inflorescences usually have modified foliage different from the vegetative part of the plant. Considering the broadest meaning of the term, any leaf associated with an inflorescence is called a bract . A bract is usually located at the node where the main stem of the inflorescence forms, joined to the main stem of the plant, but other bracts can exist within the inflorescence itself. They serve a variety of functions which include attracting pollinators and protecting young flowers. According to the presence or absence of bracts and their characteristics we can distinguish:

  • Ebracteate inflorescences: No bracts in the inflorescence.
  • Bracteate inflorescences: The bracts in the inflorescence are very specialised, sometimes reduced to small scales, divided or dissected.
  • Leafy inflorescences: Though often reduced in size, the bracts are unspecialised and look like the typical leaves of the plant, so that the term flowering stem is usually applied instead of inflorescence. This use is not technically correct, as, despite their 'normal' appearance, these leaves are considered, in fact, bracts, so that 'leafy inflorescence' is preferable.
  • Leafy-bracted inflorescences: Intermediate between bracteate and leafy inflorescence.

If many bracts are present and they are strictly connected to the stem, like in the family Asteraceae, the bracts might collectively be called an involucre. If the inflorescence has a second unit of bracts further up the stem, they might be called an involucel.

Terminal flower

Plant organs can grow according to two different schemes, namely monopodial and sympodial. In inflorescences these two different growth patterns are called indeterminate or determinate, and indicate whether a terminal flower is formed and where flowering starts within the inflorescence.

  • Indeterminate inflorescence: Monopodial growth. The terminal bud keeps growing and forming lateral flowers. A terminal flower is never formed.
  • Determinate inflorescence: Sympodial growth. The terminal bud forms a terminal flower and then dies out. Other flowers then grow from lateral buds.

Indeterminate and determinate inflorescences are sometimes referred to as open and closed inflorescences respectively.

In determinate inflorescences the terminal flower is usually the first to mature (praecursive development), while the others tend to mature starting from the bottom of the stem. This pattern is called acropetal maturation. When flowers start to mature from the top of the stem , maturation is basipetal, while when the central mature first, divergent.

In indeterminate inflorescence there is no true terminal flower and the stem usually has a rudimentary end. In many cases the last true flower formed by the terminal bud (subterminal flower) straightens up, appearing to be a terminal flower. Often a vestige of the terminal bud may be noticed higher on the stem.

Phyllotaxis

As with leaves, flowers can be arranged on the stem according to many different patterns. See 'Phyllotaxis' for in-depth descriptions.

Metatopy

Metatopy is the placement of organs out of their normally expected position: typically metatopy occurs in inflorescences when unequal growth rates alter different areas of the axis and the organs attached to the axis.

When a single or a cluster of flower(s) is located at the axil of a bract, the location of the bract in relation to the stem holding the flower(s) is indicated by the use of different terms and may be a useful diagnostic indicator.

Typical placement of bracts include:

  • Some plants have bracts that subtend the inflorescence, where the flowers are on branched stalks; the bracts are not connected to the stalks holding the flowers, but are adnate or attached to the main stem (Adnate describes the fusing together of different unrelated parts. When the parts fused together are the same, they are connately joined)
  • Other plants have the bracts subtend the pedicel or peduncle of single flowers.

Metatopic placement of bracts include:

  • When the bract is attached to the stem holding the flower (the pedicel or peduncle), it is said to be recaulescent; sometimes these bracts or bracteoles are highly modified and appear to be appendages of the flower calyx. Recaulescences is the fusion of the subtending leaf with the stem holding the bud or the bud itself, thus the leaf or bract is adnate to the stem of flower.
  • When the formation of the bud is shifted up the stem distinctly above the subtending leaf, it is described as concaulescent.

Organisation

There is no general consensus in defining the different inflorescences. The following is based on Focko Weberling's Morphologie der Blüten und der Blütenstände (Stuttgart, 1981).

The main groups of inflorescences are distinguished by branching. Within these groups, the most important characteristics are the intersection of the axes and different variations of the model.

Inflorescences can be simple or compound.

Simple inflorescences

Indeterminate simple inflorescences are generally called racemose. The main kind of racemose inflorescence is the raceme, the other kind of racemose inflorescences can all be derived from this one by dilation, compression, swelling or reduction of the different axes. Some passage forms between the obvious ones are commonly admitted.

  • A raceme is an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate (having short floral stalks) flowers along the axis.
  • A spike is a type of raceme with flowers that do not have a pedicel.
  • A racemose corymb is an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence that is flat-topped or convex due to their outer pedicels which are progressively longer than inner ones.
  • An umbel is a type of raceme with a short axis and multiple floral pedicels of equal length that appear to arise from a common point.
  • A spadix is a spike of flowers densely arranged around it, enclosed or accompanied by a highly specialised bract called a spathe. It is characteristic of the Araceae family.
  • A flower head or capitulum is a very contracted raceme in which the single sessile flowers share are borne on an enlarged stem. It is characteristic of Dipsacaceae.
  • A catkin or ament is a scaly, generally drooping spike or raceme. Cymose or other complex inflorescences that are superficially similar are also generally called thus.

Determinate simple inflorescences are generally called cymose. The main kind of cymose inflorescence is the cyme. Cymes are further divided according to this scheme:

  • Only one secondary axis: monochasium
    • Secondary buds always develop on the same side of the stem: helicoid cyme or bostryx
      • The successive pedicels are aligned on the same plane: drepanium
    • Secondary buds develop alternately on the stem : scorpioid cyme
      • The successive pedicels are arranged in a sort of spiral: cincinnus (characteristic of the Boraginaceae and Commelinaceae)
      • The successive pedicels follow a zig-zag path on the same plane: rhipidium (many Iridaceae)
  • Two secondary axes: dichasial cyme
    • Secondary axis still dichasial: dichasium (characteristic of Caryophyllaceae)
    • Secondary axis monochasia: double scorpioid cyme or double helicoid cyme
  • More than two secondary axes: pleiochasium

A cyme can also be so compressed that it looks like an umbel. Strictly speaking this kind of inflorescence could be called umbelliform cyme, although it is normally called simply 'umbel'.

Another kind of definite simple inflorescence is the raceme-like cyme or botryoid; that is as a raceme with a terminal flower and is usually improperly called 'raceme'.

A reduced raceme or cyme that grows in the axil of a bract is called a fascicle. A verticillaster is a fascicle with the structure of a dichasium; it is common among the Lamiaceae. Many verticillasters with reduced bracts can form a spicate (spike-like) inflorescence that is commonly called a spike.

Compound inflorescences

Simple inflorescences are the basis for compound inflorescences or synflorescences. The single flowers are there replaced by a simple inflorescence, which can be both a racemose or a cymose one. Compound inflorescences are composed of branched stems and can involve complicated arrangements that are difficult to trace back to the main branch.

A kind of compound inflorescence is the double inflorescence, in which the basic structure is repeated in the place of single florets. For example a double raceme is a raceme in which the single flowers are replaced by other simple racemes; the same structure can be repeated to form triple or more complex structures.

Compound raceme inflorescences can either end with a final raceme (homoeothetic), or not (heterothetic). A compound raceme is often called a panicle. Note that this definition is very different from that given by Weberling.

Compound umbles are umbels in which the single flowers are replaced by many smaller umbles called umbellets. The stem attaching the side umbellets to the main stem is called a ray.

The most common kind of definite compound inflorescence is the panicle (of Webeling, or 'panicle-like cyme'). A panicle is a definite inflorescence that is increasingly more strongly and irregularly branched from the top to the bottom and where each braching has a terminal flower.

The so called cymose corymb is similar to a racemose corymb but has a panicle-like structure. Another type of panicle is the anthela. An anthela is a cymose corymb with the lateral flowers higher than the central ones.

A raceme in which the single flowers are replaced by cymes is called a (indefinite) thyrse. The secondary cymes can of course be of any of the different types of dichasia and monochasia. A botryoid in which the single flowers are replaced by cymes is a definite thyrse or thyrsoid. Thyrses are often confusingly called panicles.

Other combinations are, of course, possible. For example, heads or umbels may be arranged in a corymb or a panicle.

Other

The family Asteraceae is characterised by a highly specialised head technically called a calathid (but usually referred to as 'capitulum' or 'head'). The family Poaceae has a peculiar inflorescence of small spikes (spikelets) organised in panicles or spikes that are usually simply and improperly referred to as spike and panicle. The genus Ficus (Moraceae) has an inflorescence called syconium and the genus Euphorbia has cyathia (sing. cyathium), usually organised in umbels. For detailed descriptions, see the respective articles.

References and external links

  • Focko Weberling: Morphologie der Blüten und der Blütenstände; Zweiter Teil. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1981
  • Wilhelm Troll: Die Infloreszenzen; Erster Band. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1964
  • Wilhelm Troll: Die Infloreszenzen; Zweiter Band, Erster Teil. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1969
  • Wilhelm Troll: Praktische Einführung in die Pflanzenmorphologie. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 1957
  • Bernhard Kausmann: Pflanzenanatomie. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 1963
  • Walter S. Judd, Christopher S. Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, Michael J. Donoghue: Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Sinauer Associates Inc. 2007
  • Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006 [and more or less continuously updated since].
  • Strasburger, Noll, Schenck, Schimper: Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen. 4. Auflage, Gustav Fischer, Jena 1900, p. 459

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