The inferior alveolar artery
(inferior dental artery
) is an artery
of the face.
It descends with the inferior alveolar nerve
to the mandibular foramen
on the medial surface of the ramus
of the mandible
It runs along the mandibular canal in the substance of the bone, accompanied by the nerve, and opposite the first premolar tooth divides into two branches, incisor and mental.
The incisor branch
is continued forward beneath the incisor
teeth as far as the middle line, where it anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side
The inferior alveolar artery and its incisor branch during their course through the substance of the bone give off a few twigs which are lost in the cancellous tissue, and a series of branches which correspond in number to the roots of the teeth: these enter the minute apertures at the extremities of the roots, and supply the pulp of the teeth.
The mental branch
escapes with the nerve at the mental foramen
, supplies the chin, and anastomoses with the submental
and inferior labial arteries
Near its origin the inferior alveolar artery gives off a lingual branch
which descends with the lingual nerve
and supplies the mucous membrane
of the mouth
As the inferior alveolar artery enters the foramen, it gives off a mylohyoid branch
which runs in the mylohyoid groove
, and ramifies on the under surface of the Mylohyoideus