Definitions

IFPI

IFPI

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organization that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. Its secretariat is based in London, UK.

As of 2008, the IFPI represents approximately 1,400 record companies in 73 countries. Its stated policies are to fight copyright infringement; promote industry-friendly copyright laws; and lobby for legal conditions believed to be in the interest of recording companies, including DRM.

Since January 1, 2005, the chief executive and chairman of IFPI is John Kennedy OBE, who has worked in the industry for more than 30 years and was one of the co-producers of Live Aid and Live8.

In addition to its international secretariat, IFPI has regional offices in Brussels, Hong Kong, Miami, Athens and Moscow.

IFPI recognises 48 affiliate groups, including BPI (British Phonographic Industry), RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) and ARIA (Australian Recording Industry Association)

According to the IFPI, "any company, firm or person producing sound recordings or music videos which are made available to the public in reasonable quantities is eligible for membership of IFPI", though they do not say what "reasonable qualtities" actually means. In those countries where there is a national group of IFPI or an affiliated organisation, potential members should first join the national body before seeking membership of IFPI.

History

Phonogram performance rights

The IFPI was formed in Rome in November 1933 to represent "the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora" by promoting legislation and copyrights "to protect the largely British-based recording industry" by promoting a global performance right in gramophone sound recordings.

Phonogram copyrights

The IFPI heavily lobbied at the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations of 1961, which established an international standard for the protection of sound recordings, live performances & broadcasts. This Convention was opposed by trade groups representing authors and composers, who were concerned that establishing such "neighbouring rights" would undermine their own control over how their works were used and would result in prohibitively expensive licensing. Pressure from broadcasters who didn't want to license the records they broadcast, among other factors, kept the U.S. from signing the Convention; the U.S. did not recognize a separate sound recording copyright until 1971.

Phonogram anti-piracy

The IFPI then began a campaign against piracy. In 1971 it succeeded in advocating and obtaining the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms (the Geneva Phonograms Convention), which 72 countries signed.

In 1986, the ISO established the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) standard, ISO 3901. In 1989, the IFPI was designated the registration authority for ISRC codes. ISRC codes "enable the use of copyright protected recordings and works to be controlled; facilitate the distribution and collection of royalties (performances, private copying); and assist in the fight against piracy.

In 1994, in an effort to combat piracy, the IFPI and the compact disc manufacturing industry introduced Source Identification (SID) codes, which are markings on CD parts that identify the manufacturers, equipment, and master discs that were used to create each disc.

SID codes are formatted as the letters "IFPI" followed by 4 or 5 hexadecimal digits. A SID-marked disc typically bears at least two codes, each imprinted on different physical components. A number prefaced with "L" is a "mastering code," a serial number taken from a pool assigned by Philips to the manufacturer. It identifies the Laser Beam Recorder (LBR) signal processor or mold that produced a particular stamper or a glass master disc from which molds are produced. Non-"L" numbers are "mold codes", the first 2 or 3 digits of which are assigned by Philips to the operator of the manufacturing or mastering plant, which might not be the same plant that manufactured the stamper or glass master; and the remaining digits are a serial number assigned by that plant to its molds.

Domain incident

In mid-October 2007, after the IFPI let the ifpi.com domain registration lapse, ownership of the ifpi.com domain was transferred to The Pirate Bay, a pro-piracy group which claimed it received the domain from an anonymous donor. The group set up a Web site under the domain titled "International Federation of Pirates Interests," a replacement backronym for IFPI. Ownership of the domain was returned to the IFPI in late November, when a WIPO arbitration panel concluded that "the Disputed Domain Name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark in which the [IFPI] has rights" and that the Pirate Bay's representative "registered and [was] using the Disputed Domain Name in bad faith" and failed to adequately rebut the IFPI's contention that he "has no rights or a legitimate interest in the Disputed Domain Name.

OiNK.cd incident

On October 23, 2007, the torrent website OiNK.cd was shut down. The website showed a message telling of an investigation of OiNK.cd by the IFPI, BPI, Cleveland Police, and the FIOD ECD into "suspected illegal music distribution".

See also

References

External links

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