Hunt, Gaillard, 1862-1924, American historian and editor, b. New Orleans. He served (1887-1909, 1917-24) the Dept. of State in various capacities, his most important work being done as chief of the division of publications and as editor. From 1909 to 1917 he was chief of the division of manuscripts in the Library of Congress. Among his books are The Life of James Madison (1902) and The Department of State of the United States: Its History and Functions (1914). He edited The Writings of James Madison (9 vol., 1900-1910) and Vol. XVI to XXVII of the Journals of the Continental Congress (1909-28).
Hunt, Henry, 1773-1835, English radical politician. A powerful orator, popular with the laboring classes, Hunt was quarrelsome and stubborn but a sincere proponent of electoral and other reforms. He took part with Arthur Thistlewood in the Spa Fields meeting (1816) and gained his chief notice by presiding at the meeting in Manchester that ended in the Peterloo massacre (1819). He was imprisoned for two years, after a trial of doubtful legality. Hunt sat in Parliament (1830-32) but exerted little influence.
Hunt, Holman: see Hunt, William Holman.
Hunt, Lamar, 1932-2006, American business and sports executive, b. El Dorado, Ark. One of the Hunt brothers—sons of Texas oil magnate H. L. Hunt—Lamar Hunt had significant business interests in oil and real estate, and was involved in 1969-70 with his brothers William Herbert Hunt and Nelson Bunker Hunt in an attempt to corner the silver market that failed spectacularly. Hunt is best known, however, for his role as owner of football's Kansas City Chiefs and founder (1959) and president of the American Football League (1960-69). He negotiated the upstart AFL's merger into the National Football League, which greatly expanded the older league and gave the NFL its modern form and popularity. Hunt is also credited with naming the Super Bowl, the NFL's championship game. Active in other sports as well, Hunt helped found the North American Soccer League (1967-84) and Major League Soccer and World Championship Tennis (1971-89).
Hunt, Leigh (James Henry Leigh Hunt), 1784-1859, English poet, critic, and journalist. He was a friend of the eminent literary men of his time, and his home was the gathering place for such notable writers as Hazlitt, Lamb, Keats, and Shelley. With his brother John, Hunt established (1808) the Examiner, a liberal weekly to which he contributed political articles. Because of an outspoken article attacking the prince regent, the brothers were imprisoned from 1813 to 1815, but they continued to edit the journal from jail. In 1822, Hunt joined Shelley and Byron in Italy and launched the Liberal (1822-23), which proved a failure. During other periods Hunt contributed to the Indicator (1819-21), the Tatler (1830-32), and Leigh Hunt's London Journal (1834-35). His literary fame rests chiefly on his miscellaneous light essays, his lyrics Abou Ben Adhem and Jenny Kissed Me, and his witty and informative autobiography (1850). The Story of Rimini (1816), based on the love of Paolo and Francesca, is his only long poem of consequence. A noted dramatic and literary critic, he was one of the first to praise the genius of Shelley and Keats.

See L. H. and C. W. Houtchens, ed., Leigh Hunt's Dramatic Criticism (1949), Leigh Hunt's Literary Criticism (1956), and Leigh Hunt's Political and Occasional Essays (1962); biographies by E. Blunden (1930, repr. 1970), J. R. Thompson (1977), A. Blainey (1985), and A. Holden (2005).

Hunt, Richard Morris, 1828-95, American architect, b. Brattleboro, Vt., studied in Geneva, Switzerland, and at the École des Beaux-Arts; brother of William Morris Hunt. He was a leading practitioner of 19th-century eclecticism. Hunt worked under T. U. Walter on the extensions of the Capitol at Washington, D.C. In New York City he founded the first American studio for training young architects, and he was one of the organizers of the American Institute of Architects, of which he became president in 1888. Most of his work was closely imitative of historic styles. It included the Lenox Library, New York City (later torn down); the first building for the Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, Mass.; the U.S. naval observatory at Washington, D.C.; the pedestal for the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor; and numerous magnificent residences, such as those of the Vanderbilts in New York City and Newport, R.I., and the Biltmore House in Asheville, N.C. His Tribune Building in New York was one of the first elevator buildings.

See biography by P. R. Baker (1980).

Hunt, R. Timothy(Richard Timothy Hunt), 1943-, British biochemist, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1968. Hunt was a researcher at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City (1968-81) and a professor at Cambridge (1981-90) before becoming (1991) principal scientist at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund (now Cancer Research UK London Research Institute). Hunt received the 2001 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Leland H. Hartwell and Sir Paul M. Nurse for discoveries concerning key regulators of the cell cycle. Hunt discovered cyclins, which are proteins that form and degrade during the cell cycle, and determined that they enable activation of cyclin-dependent kinase, enzymes that are involved in a number of cell functions. The work of Hunt and his colleagues laid the foundation for an improved understanding of chromosomal instabilities in cancer cells.
Hunt, William Holman, 1827-1910, English painter. Hunt was a founder of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood and one of its most conscientious exponents. His paintings are often crude in color and laborious in technique, but are completely sincere in their devotion to Pre-Raphaelite principles. In 1854 he visited Palestine in order to have authentic material for his religious paintings. Among his best-known works are The Light of the World (Univ. of Oxford) and The Triumph of the Innocents (Liverpool Gall.).

See his Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1905-6); studies by F. G. Stephens (1860) and A. C. Gissing (1936).

Hunt, William Morris, 1824-79, American painter, b. Brattleboro, Vt., studied in Düsseldorf and Paris. He was greatly influenced by the Barbizon school and by J. F. Millet. During the Civil War he established himself in Boston, where he introduced the ideals and methods of the Barbizon school. As teacher and painter, Hunt exerted a widespread influence upon American art. He is thought to be the first American master to admit female students into his classes. His earliest works were usually figure pieces; he then turned to portraits and in his later years devoted himself chiefly to landscapes. Among his best-known paintings are Girl at a Fountain, The Bathers, and a landscape (Metropolitan Mus.); a portrait of Chief Justice Shaw (courthouse, Salem, Mass.); and The Flight of Night (Pennsylvania Acad. of the Fine Arts).

See biography by his granddaughter, Diana Holman-Hunt (1969).

Hunt-the-pixel (also pixel hunt) is a term used to describe some computer game interfaces involving point and click with a mouse. The term is usually applied to adventure games in which the primary difficulty with some portion of the game lies in finding an object on the screen. In some cases, the required object is quite small, and may be only a few pixels in size. The player may not have any idea what to look for, but often the game cannot progress without finding it. Players often apply the term to any game in which the gameplay is hindered by the frustrating task of determining precisely where on the screen to click.

An example of pixel hunting appears from The X-Files: The Game, where a vital clue is a bullet exactly 2x2 pixels in size. Other examples can be found in Dark Seed, where the player must locate a small bobby pin lying on the floor of a library, or in Beneath a Steel Sky, where the player must identify and use (without prompting) such tiny items as a 2x2 pixel lump of putty, a thumb-sized metal plate in a poorly lit club, and a barely distinguishable light socket in an abandoned metro tunnel. Pixel hunting is also crucial in Future Wars, where items are not only hard to find and required relatively late in respect to their original location but also, to successfully find an item, the player character has to stand close to its location on the screen. Dreamweb actually incorporates a "magnifying glass" effect with a sighting reticle into its interface to assist the player in locating the many infinitesimal hotspots scattered thickly through its rooms.

Missed objects will not always lead to an unwinnable situation, but sometimes will offer just better alternative approaches to future puzzles, being thus something like easter eggs.

Some games made by Sierra On-Line, including portions of the Space Quest and King's Quest series, have featured interfaces that at times required a hunt-the-pixel approach. One situation in LucasArts's Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure requires the player to locate a particular book among several screens full of book stacks. However, LucasArts games have the advantage of a status line indicating the object the cursor is currently over. Another remedy was to make essential objects flash, or some other method to make the element more visible against the benign background, as is done for example at the beginning of King's Quest VI with Alexander's twinkling insignia ring on the beach.

Pixel-hunting is extremely common in games of the escape the room genre. Players must not only find and click on very small items, but sometimes must also find very small arbitrary, and invisible hotspots in order to trigger a change in point of view. Many authors of online Flash point-and-click adventure games have disabled the tab key to prevent players from easily cycling through all the hotspots.


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