Higher education in Quebec is an education system that is unique from other provinces in Canada. Instead of entering university or college directly from high school, Quebec students enter post-secondary studies at the collegiate level into institutions called Collège d’enseignement générale et professionel (CEGEP). This level of post-secondary education allows students to choose either a vocational path or a more academic path. Many factors have lead to the province’s current state of higher education including language and culture as well as provincial distribution of natural resources and population. The Quiet Revolution in the 1960s also brought about many changes that are still reflected in the province's higher education today. The provincial government is responsible for education in Quebec through the Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sport. Currently (2008), the Minister of Education, Recreation and Sport is Michelle Courchesne. Higher education in Quebec is available in both English and French at all levels. Unlike the primary and secondary levels of education, students have the choice of pursuing post-secondary studies in either language (in CEGEP and university). As of 2008, there were nineteen universities, three of which are English Language institutions. The total number of CEGEPs is forty-eight, of which, six offer English language instruction. The average undergraduate tuition fees for Quebec residents: Cdn $2025, and the average graduate tuition fees for Quebec residents: Cdn $2137. In Quebec forty percent of the students who reach university (baccalaureat) level studies are women.
In 1789, the Commission on Education, chaired by Judge William Smith proposed the establisment of a school system from elementary school through to university. They recommended that this system be capped by a non-denominational university, governed by lay and religious representatives - both Catholic and Protestant - attracting members of both faiths.; unfortunately, the report was frowned upon by the clergy and Smith's recommendation were rejected. This report was a catalyst for debate revolving around the divided nature of the early Quebec education system. The Quebec Education system would remain secular until the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s.
According to Henchey and Burgess, there were five major changes to the Quebec Higher Education system since the 1960s:
1. The demand on the post secondary system saw increases of sixty percent per decade until the 1980s This growth was due largely in part to the growth in population of Quebec and the need for more specialized post secondary training requirements. With enrolment increasing one hundred fifty percent from 1967 until 1983, a joint committee was established with representatives including secondary school personal and University Admissions Officers for the purpose of consolidating and a expanding regular programs. This helped to smooth articulation between the various colleges and university both public and private, which assisted the increasing volume of student participants This committee was the result of a provincial royal commission recommendation that stressed the need to accomidate the increasing demand for higher education, and to provide industry with the higher degree of skilled labour required in the industrialized province. In 1969, ÉNAP (École Nationale d’Administration Publiques) forms as the Public Administration University. , and in October 1972, Télé-université is established as a multi-mode francophone university when parliament created the Commission of the Télé-université, on an experimental basis, for a five year period. Loyola would cease to exist in 1974 when it is merged with Sir George Williams University to become Concordia University. Although both institutions had religious roots as Jesuit and Christian, Concordia is established as a secular institution. Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean opens in 1985 and offers instruction in the sciences.
2. The establishment of CEGEPS and the University of Quebec System changed the institutional patterns.
In 1967, Bill 21 established the CÉGEPs. In September of 1967, there were twelve CEGEPS. A year later in September 1968, the number of CEGEPs almost doubled to twenty-three colleges. Dawson College opens in 1969 as the first English Language CEGEP. Three years later (1971), there were forty CÉGEPs. The current (2008) number of CEPEGs in Quebec is forty-eight. The CEGEPs assumed the role of instructing advanced general courses; essentially removing the freshman year from university. Because the CEGEP graduate was given 30 credits toward a Bachelor's Degree leaving only 90 credits, the university courses became more specialized and of course shorter. Also, prior to the Quiet Revolution, a Bachelor's of Science Degree took an English student four years of University. Their French counterpart was required to complete an undergraduate degree in general arts before entrance into three additional years of Science Studies; thus, CEGEPs standardize the required duration of training for both English and French students.
In 1979, the Conseil de Collèges was established to make revisions to the act governing colleges. It developed two commissions: one for general (academic) and one for vocational. Revisions of the laws governing colleges conducted in 1984 establishing a new set of regulations for programs. Also in 1984, the saw the development of an annual report, Cahiers de l’enseignement collegial interested in regulations respecting the basis of college education. In 1985, a policy statement of the Council of Collèges is published titled “Les CÉGEPs de demain.”
The University of Quebec system was created in 1968, though the passing of Bill 88. It was modeled after State university systems in New York State and California. It was developed with a central administration office located in Québec City with four initial campuses: Montréal, Trois Rivières, Rimouski, Chicoutimi. By delivering higher education in this format, the University of Quebec has provided access to many social and economic groups that may have otherwise restricted from pursuing further education due to there geography location. Specialized courses are offering at the various regional campus are designed with local representatives and ecological orientation. The initial philosophies were meant to be more democratic, less elite and more flexible. Collège Sainte-Marie de Montréal was one of the institutions that merged together to create UQAM in 1969. In this same year, the Institut Nationale de Recherches Scientifiques (INRS) develops as a research arm of the University of Quebec. Institut Armand Frappier is established as a component of the INRS in 1975. Disciplines at the Institut Armand Frappier are focus around health science research including immunology and environmental biotechnology. The Université Québec à Hull (UQAH) is added to the University of Quebec system in 1972. In 1974, TELUQ offers first its course titled COO 1001, Initiation with co-operation. This course was create in partnership Desjardins, and two years later (1976) TELUQ offers its first program titled “Certificate in Knowledge of the Man and Medium (CHEM). The first graduate from this program was Mr. Pierre Vincent of Holy-Foy, Quebec. In 1990, TELUQ offers its first baccalaureat in communication, and by 1997 TELUQ is receiving a subsidy of nine million dollars for technological modernization. The head office of Téluq in Quebec take hold of their own buildings, which is similar to the structure of the Montreal office. 1974 saw the inauguration of École de Technologique Supérieur (ÉTS) which specializes in the delivery of engineering and technology. The École de Technologique Supérieur (ETS) has developed industry partnerships to build the curriculum and provide instructors.
3. Attempts to coordinate and rationalize the traditionally independent universities into a network that reflects the growing financial dependence of universities on government grants. In 1968, Bill 57 is passed to established the Council of Universities (Conseil des universités) to help strengthen the network of universities in Québec. The Council’s responsibilities included implementing a plan of development and financing education.
4. Curriculum changes involving new programs, more specialized B.A.’s and short certificates and diplomas, and the integration of teacher education into the universities. The Quiet Revolution in the 1960s was instrumental in the development of the current higher education system. The Parent Report released in 1964 was essentially the blueprint for university development in Quebec. It reported that Quebec primary and secondary school teachers ranked significantly lower than those in other jurisdictions of North America. 1961-62 figures indicate that 90% of Catholic (French) teachers and 65% of Protestant (English) teachers had less than or equal to 13 years of schooling. The Quebec Government believed that success in school reform hinged on having well qualified teachers, and teacher education underwent major changes in the preparation and qualification for those entering the profession. The Quebec universities assumed the duties of administering teacher education. By the end of the 1960s, undergraduate degrees became the minimum requirement for new teachers in the K-V system.
5. Periodic analysis of the role of Universities in society and the kind of policies that would be appropriate for future university development. In 1975, NADEAU Report was commissioned. Higher education in Quebec was also subject to a cultural development policy in 1978 In 1978, Les Collèges de Québec Nouvelles Étapes Report was commissioned. The Commission d’etude sur les Universities (CEU) was commissioned as for volumes in 1979
Essentially, "the reforms fundamentally altered the character and pattern of education, changing it from a decentralized, church dominated system serving an elite to a centralized, state controlled one catering to a mass population."
In 2005, the government of Quebec authorizes the joining of the TÉLUQ and the UQAM. This decision was made by decree of the Council of Ministers on May 18, 2005 on recommendation of the Minister for Education, Recreation and Sport, Mr Jean-Marc Fournier. This amalgamation, which makes of Téluq a component of the UQAM within the University of Quebec, was carried out by the delivery of additional letters patent to the UQAM.
The new CEGEP institutions were polyvalent offering both pre-university and technical programs. The association with the various religious interests was replaced with a secular and public approach with the intention of increasing access for all social groups. By developing a single structure, it allowed for equality of educational opportunity. Students apply to regional admission services, not to individual CEGEPS. The exceptions to this are Dawson College and Champlain Regional College. There are three regions: Québec (Service régional d'admission au collégial de Québec - SRACQ), Metropolitan Montréal (Service régional d'admission du Montréal métropolitain - SRAM), and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Service régional d'admission des cégeps du Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean - SRASL). Metropolitan Montréal (SRAM) is the only region that offers English-language CEGEPs.
Since the 1960s, the higher education system in Quebec reacted to an increasing population by offering expanded education access in more regions. Universities in Quebec are actively reducing or eliminating desparities between men and women, metropolitan and rural and French and English. According to Henchey and Burgess, "Quebec is clearly moving in the direction of equality access, especially for French women; however, gaps still remain for other language groups, poor and the isolated."
There are transfer programs available for secondary school grads from outside the province; however, applicants are required to meet entrance requirements as specified by the individual university. Applicants are required to demonstrate profiecency in the language of instruction used at the institution.
The University of Quebec is a unique educational system in the province, as it was originally modeled after the state run universities found in California and New York State. The UQ system was a product of the Quiet Revolution, and it was created by the Quebec National Assembly who enacted the "University of Québec Act" in 1968. According to Magnuson (1980), "The University of Quebec was intended to extend higher education to thoughout Quebec in response to expanding enrolments allowing accessable to students in rural communities." The mission of the University of Quebec is to facilitate the access to university education, to contribute to the scientific development of Quebec and to assist in regional development. In 2007, students had access to adult and university education in seven regions of Quebec through one of the UQ's ten French language institutions. Each campus of the University of Quebec is a legally independent entity, which allows for increased autonomy
The Faculty of Medicine had increased residency capacity sixty percent since 2003 largely due to International Medical Graduates (IMG's).
The Télé-université, or TÉLUQ, is the first university-level establishment specializing in distance education in Quebec. As part of the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), the TÉLUQ's mandate is university education and research. It is characterized by its flexible teaching model, which makes it possible for students to pursue studies on one's own schedule. It accommodates annually more than 17.000 students. Its programs are sanctioned by a diploma of the UQAM. The amalgamation of TÉLUQ and UQAM form the largest bimodal francophone university, combining an on campus and a distance education model.
In 1967, the CEGEP system was created during the Quiet Revolution to allow French and English students the ability to follow the same educational route. It was initially formed as an amalogmation of the classical colleges, normal schools and technical schools.The CEGEP system quickly replaced the provinces classical colleges,which numbered ninety-eight in 1966-67, to less than twenty in five years time. The English schools, however, had to be created from scratch because the only two existing English colleges (Loyola and Marianopolis) were converted into other educational institutions. Loyola merged with Sir George University to become Concordia University, and Marianopolis became a private college.
Two types of programs are offered:
As of 2008, there were forty-eight CEGEPs, twenty five private colleges, ten institutions operated by government departments, and one college under university.English as the medium of instruction is offered in six of these colleges: Champlain Regional College, Dawson College, Heritage College, Jon Abbott College, Marianopolis, and Vanier Upon completion of the CEGEP program, a student is awarded a DEC - Diploma of College Studies. This certification is awarded to student who have completed either the vocational stream or the academic stream. The CEGEP system streamlined access to niversities, as English students were previously eligable for post secondary studies after eleven years of schooling, but French students once required fifteen years of schooling. Although, Smith et al, indicated that French students were previously required to complete sixteen years of study before university In the 1970s through early 1980s, “the colleges became heavily involved in programs of continuing education, community development and recently programs of international cooperation with developing nations.” In 1999 Andre Michaud indicated that the rates of completion for Quebec students was greated that forty percent for those in high school and greater that twenty-five percent for those in university
One of the objectives of the Québec education system is to provide access to university services to the whole province of Quebec. Physical accessibility with these services results either in a physical university campus or a center of teaching establishment in the area, or through distance education. University services are offered in all regions of Quebec. Thus, the majority of universities have several centres of teaching and research, which make up the university campus. In general, the head office of the university is found at this centre. However, in order to meet the needs of populations further removed from the campuses, universities often offer classes at satellite centres distant from their principal campus. These are generally offered on a part-time. Another way of making university education more accessible is through the integrated use of media, such as in printed paper form, television and telematics. The Télé-université, establishment of the network of the University of Quebec, specializes in this mode of distance education. More than 5,100 students are registered there, including more than 3,200 women and nearly 1,900 men. Most of these students enter in the first cycle (September), although some are enrolled part time. As well, three out of four students are 30 years old or older. Québécois universities confer more than 35 000 university degrees annually. In the 1990s, the annual number of decreed university degrees grew considerably. The rate of obtaining a baccalaureat in Quebec is among the highest in the world.
Association of Private Colleges of Québec (Association des collèges privés du Québec (APCQ)) acts as the voice of twenty-two private subsidized colleges in order to promote education at the CEGEP level.
Confederation des Syndicaux Nationales (CSN), most CEPEG instructors are associated with this union.
Council of Education (Conseil supérieure de l’Éducation) is composed of twenty-two members and is an advisor body to the Minister of Education, Recreation and Sport. This council is independent from the Minister, but it provides suggestions and information about the state of education in the province. It conducts research and encourages stake holder to provide their input.
Commission of College Teaching Evaluation (Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial) acts as an independent government organization whose evaluation mandate covers most aspects of college education, with special emphasis on student achievement and programmes of studies. Legislation attributes to the Commission the power to evaluate and make recommendations, as well as to exercise a declaratory power.
Conférence des recteurs et des principaux des universités du Québec (Conference of Rectors and Principles of Quebec(CREPUQ)). This group is an association of university institutions. The CREPUQ currently have a campaign promoting the importance of higher education titled KNOWLEGDGEMATTERS to promote the benefit of having a well educated, highly skilled society.
Federation of CEGEPs (Fédération des cégeps) is the voice of the forty-eight public CEGEPS in Québec.
The Fédération promotes education at the college level, and more specifically in the general and vocational colleges known as CEGEPs.
Federation des association des professeurs des universities du Quebec (FAPUQ) was created in 1970. This organization grew out to the new Quebecios identity triggered by the societal changes in higher education follwoing the Quiet Revolution, and according to Greg Allain was the central body in the formation of the FQPPU
Federation of Employees of Public Services (Fédération des employées et employés de services publics(FEESP-CSN)) represents support staff located in the province of Quebec
The McGill Association of University Teachers (l'Association des Professeur(e)s et Bibliothécaires de McGill ((MAUT - APBM)) was organized at McGIll University in 1951 to increase the involvement of facalty in the goverance of the university. Through this involvment, McGill has fostered an atmosphere of academic freedom with improvements have made with regards to working conditions and salaries for teachers and librarians.
Minister of Economic Development, Innovation and Export (Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation) Promotes and develops the overall scientific and technological development required in Quebec. This Ministry encourages university research and technology transfer
Ministry of Education, recreation and Sport (Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport)directs, promotes and develops postsecondary, college and university education, including scientific research and development.
Quebec House of Labour (Centrale des syndicats du Québec(CSQ)) prior to June 2000, this union was known as the Quebec Teachers' House of Labour (Centrale des enseignants du Québec(CEQ)).
The Office of Professions(Office des Professions) is a government agency mandated to protect the public by ensuring that the workers of fifty one professions in Quebec follow the Professional Code Part of the public protection is done through the regulations of the total students admitted for specific professions; furthermore, the Office of Professions maintains the accreditation standards for professional programs including ungrading and continuing education for practitioners.
The Quebec Federation of University Teachers (Fédération québécoise des professeures et professeurs d’université (FQPPU)) was founded on May 16, 1991. The federation is made up of fifteen unions and it is primarily concerned with the maintainance, defence, promotion and development of the university as a public service including the defence of the right to university access and quality.
In the latter part of 1970s and into the early 1980s serious under funding lead to difficulties in basic financial planning due to the uncertainty in funding policies; therefore, priorities for programs leading to careers and professions and for research and development in the emerging sectors of information technologies were not always easily engaged this time of little growth and financial constraint. In 1979, nine percent of the total cost of post secondary education was collected as student fees. This compares to three percent from gifts and eighty-eight percent from the provincial government. This compares to Ontario's total funding sources, where thirteen percent is from user fees, nine percent from foundation gifts and seventy-eight percent from the provincial government. Currently, McGill University has the third largest endowment of all Canadian educational institutions, approaching $1 billion. Tuition fees vary significantly between in-province, out-of-province and international students, with full-time Quebec students paying around $3,500 per year, other Canadian students paying around $7,500 per year, and international students paying over $15,000 per year.
The budget of Téluq, which is a public agency, is mainly made up of subsidies from the Minister of Education, Recreation and Sport. These subsidies are calculated from the number of students who are registered annually. This is combined with other sources of revenue, and in the 2006- 2007 fiscal year, the budget of $32,912,000 was generated from three sources: seventy- three percent was from subsidies, thirteen percent came from the incomes of education rights, and fourteen percent came from other incomes
In the 2007-2008 fiscal year, tuition fees for Québec students are as follows free at public CEGEP unless a student fails five general courses or seven vocational course. Private CEGEP assess tuition fees. Subsidizes for private colleges vary in amount from one institution to another, but is generally between $800 (can.) and $3700 (can.) per semester, depending on the program of studies. International students (non-Canadian) were required to pay between $4010 (can.) and $6125 (can.) per semester, depending on the program of study. At a subsidized private college an interntional student was charged between $2404 (can.) and $3732 (can.) per semester, depending on the program of studies.
Residents of Québec pay less tuition than non-residents of the province. For the 2008-2009 academic year, at Bishop’s University in Lennoxville, a Québec resident will pay $1668 (can.) in tuition while a Canadian, non-resident of Québec will pay $4790 (can.). At Concordia University, Québec residents paid $58.94 (can.) per credit and Canadian non-Québec residents paid $171.36 (can.) per credit in the 2007-2008 fiscal year.
For the academic year 2007-2008, the additional financial contributions required of non-Canadian students enrolled in a university were $306.60(can.) per credit for students the undergraduate level studying human and social sciences, geography, education, physical education, administration, humanities and law, and all other discpines were 348.60 (can.) per credit, studetns at the graduate level paid an additional $306.60 (can.) per credit and students at the doctoral level paid an additional $269.85 (can.) per credit.
Student financial aid is administered provincially through the Ministry of Education, Leisure and Sport, which has set up conditions for student eligability for loans and bursaries. A student must have Canadian citizenship or the statute of permanent resident, refugee or anybody protected under the terms of the Law on immigration and protection from the refugees; a student must reside in the province of Quebec at the time of presenting the request for financial aid; a student must be allowed or will be allowed in an educational establishment recognized by the Minister for Education, Leisure and Sport, and be enrolled in full-time recognized studies, or considered to be enrolled in full-time studies. Studies can not exceed the maximum number of months of studies for which financial aid can be allotted; a student can not reach the limit of debt fixed for your order of teaching, your academic cycle or your program of studies; and must not have sufficient financial resources to continue studies. Students can not be imprisoned. If an individual and thier spouse are both students, only one qualifies for full-time studies during the same year of attribution. Special provisions are available for pregnant students and students with families, which include: a recognition of indepedence that excludes parental income when calculating eligiblity, the living expenses of a dependant child, and if a pegnant student is single the expenses as a household single parent are added to the calculation. Students with families are eligable to the Program of loans and purses that is normally intended for the full-time students althought the studnet can study part-time or a minimum of twenty hours of instruction per month; half of the number of months during which you are being studied part-time is then taken into account to determine your period of admissibility. Recognition, in the allowed expenditure, of expenses if you are household head single-parent, and for the living expenses of dependent children 18 years. The coverage of the expenses dependent on the purchase of drugs and care chiropratic portion not covered by he health insurance of Quebec or by an insurance company, as well as expenses related to the visual purchase of ortheses for you or your child. Exemption is given, in the evaluation of your contribution, for the first $1,200 (can.) of the entire amount of annual alimony. Admissibility with an financial aid during the period of summer, even if you are not being studied during this one. Extensions, in certain cases, of your period of admissibility to a purse, to allow you to provide for the expenses related to one or more children on your load. The temporary exemption of the refunding of the debt of studies when you stop your studies for a certain time because of a pregnancy or following the birth or of the adoption of a child.
L'idee d'universite: Une anthologie des debats sur l'enseignement superieur au Quebec de 1770 a 1970.(Book Review)
Jun 22, 2003; Claude Corbo and Marie Ouellon. Montrtal: Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2001. 377 pp. $34.95 sc. Little historical...