By the late 16th century, the Hiberno-Normans began to be referred to as the Old English. In the Irish language, they were known as the gaill or "foreigners". Englishmen born in England however were called Sasanaigh or "saxons", and there was a very strong distinction made between Gaill and Sasanaigh in the Irish annals, with the former being referred to variously as Fionnghaill or Dubhghaill depending upon how much the poet wished to flatter his patron.
Family, Locality, and Nationality: Vernacular Adaptations of the Expugnatio Hibernica in Late Medieval Ireland
Mar 22, 2013; The two inventories of the library of the Fitzgerald earls of Kildare that survive from the end of the Middle Ages bear witness...