Hemosiderosis

Hemosiderosis

Hemosiderosis (AmE) or haemosiderosis (BrE) is a form of iron overload disorder resulting in the accumulation of hemosiderin.

Types include:

Hemosiderin deposition in the lungs is often seen after diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, which occurs in diseases such as Goodpasture's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, and idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis. Mitral stenosis can also lead to pulmonary hemosiderosis. Hemosiderin collects throughout the body in hemochromatosis. Hemosiderin deposition in the liver is a common feature of hemochromatosis and is the cause of liver failure in the disease. Deposition in the pancreas leads to diabetes and in the skin leads to hyperpigmentation. Hemosiderin deposition in the brain is seen after bleeds from any source, including chronic subdural hemorrhage, Cerebral arteriovenous malformations, cavernous hemangiomata. Hemosiderin collects in the skin and is slowly removed after bruising; hemosiderin may remain in some conditions such as stasis dermatitis. Hemosiderin in the kidneys have been associated with marked hemolysis and a rare blood disorder called Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.

Hemosiderin may deposit in diseases associated with iron overload. These diseases are typically diseases in which chronic blood loss requires frequent blood transfusions, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.

Treatment

Treatment for hemosiderin focuses on limiting the effects of the underlying disease leading to continued deposition. In hemochromatosis, this entails frequent phlebotomy. In diseases such as Wegener's granulomatosis, immune suppression is required. Limiting blood transfusions and institution of iron chelation therapy when iron overload is detected are important when managing sickle-cell anemia and other chronic hemolytic anemias.

See also

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