Haplogroup Q3 (Y-DNA)

In human genetics Haplogroup Q1a3a is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup Q1a3a is a subclade of Haplogroup Q. Haplogroup Q1a3a was previously known as Haplogroup Q3.

Indigenous American Clade

Haplogroup Q1a3a is the only Y Chromosome haplogroup strictly associated with the indigenous peoples of the Americas. This haplogroup is defined by the presence of the M3 mutation. The M3 mutation is found "downstream" from the M242 mutation. The M242 mutation is the defining mutation of the parent Q Haplogroup. The M3 mutation occurred on the Q lineage 8-12 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway. There is some debate as to on which side of the Bering Strait this mutation occurred, but it definitely happened in the ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.


The subclades of Haplogroup Q1a3a with their defining mutations (in parenthesis):

  • Q1a3a (M3)
    • Q1a3a* (---)
    • Q1a3a1 (M19)
    • Q1a3a2 (M194)
    • Q1a3a3 (M199, P106, P292)


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