The Governorate of Livonia (Vidzemes guberņa; Liivimaa kubermang, Лифляндская губерния; Livländisches Gouvernement) or Livland, also known as the Government of Livonia or Province of Livonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.
It was originally called the Riga Governorate (Рижская губерния, Rīgas guberņa) after the city of Riga, the capital of Livonia. It was created July 28 (July 17 O.S.), 1713 out of Swedish Livonia, territories conquered from Sweden in the Great Northern War. The former Swedish Duchy of Livonia was formally ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. During subsequent administrative reordering, the governorate was renamed in 1796 into the Governorate of Livonia.
The Autonomous Governorate of Estonia issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence on February 24 1918, one day before it was occupied by German troops during World War I. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on March 3, 1918, Bolshevist Russia accepted the loss of the Livland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on August 27, 1918, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia.