He was born the eldest son to Elizabeth Herbert and William Owen in Henllys of the parish of Nevern, which is located near Newport, Pembrokeshire. William Owen was a wealthy Welsh lawyer who purchased the Lordship of Kemys, and the family dwelled in a Tudor manor house. At the time of George's birth the records indicate his father was at the age of 82 and the heir to the barony of Kemys. William finally died at a ripe old age in 1574, when George was 15.
George Owen was educated in law at the Inns of Court in London. In 1571 he was married to Elizabeth Phillips, and the couple would have eleven children, including the eldest son, Alban Owen, born in 1580. After he was married he inherited his father's estate. Later he would further add to the family estate, including the Lordship of Kemys. However he spent considerable time fighting a series of lawsuits against family enemies in the county over ownership of manorial franchises.
During his life span he collected antiquarian information about Wales, including the heraldry, genealogy and historical buildings and structures. He also studied the topography of the county of Pembrokeshire and other parts of Wales. During his studies he performed observations of the geology of Wales, including the strata of limestone and coal. Although he did not actually form geological theories about the formations of these strata, he has earned a certain reputation as the progenitor of British geology.
He was a literary man who was reflective of this period of interest in history and antiquities during the Elizabeth era. He associated with a small circle of writers in Pembrokeshire, and was the patron to numerous Welsh bards.
From 1587 until 1590 he served as the Deputy Lieutenant of Pembrokeshire, and he reprised this role from 1595 until 1601. In this service he was responsible for the military defensive, including the fortification of Milford Haven against possible Spanish invasion, and he trained the local militia for the county. He also served as the Sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1587 and 1602.