He was born in Lexington, Missouri, and graduated in 1887 from William Jewell College. He traveled and studied in Europe and received the degree of Ph.D. from Strassburg. He was employed at Johns Hopkins (1892-94) and at Leland Stanford (1894-98). He resided in New York after 1901. In 1907 he became staff lecturer at the Woman's Art School of Cooper Union. Columbia appointed him extension lecturer on art in 1912. He wrote: The English Rising in 1450 (1892). He edited and translated Muther's History of Painting (two volumes, 1900) and revised Fergusson's History of Architecture (two volumes, 1910).