The stratigraphic contour lines are drawn on the surface of a selected deep stratum, so that they can show the topographic trends of the strata under the ground. It is not always possible to properly show this when the strata are extremely fractured, mixed, in some discontinuities, or where they are otherwise disturbed.
Strike and dip symbols consist of (at minimum) a long line, a number, and a short line which are used to indicate tilted beds. The long line is the strike line, which shows the true horizontal direction along the bed, the number is the dip or number of degrees of tilt above horizontal, and the short line is the dip line, which shows the direction of tilt.
A fascinating story of the first modern geologic map is told in The Map that Changed the World, by Simon Winchester. It's the story of William Smith, a canal digger who created the first geologic map of Great Britain in 1819, but ended up in debtor's prison and lived homeless for 10 years until he was recognized for his work by King William IV in 1831. (Harper-Collins publishers, 2202. ISBN 0-06-093180-9)
Two 1:625,000 scale maps cover the basic geology for the UK. More detailed sheets are available at scales of 1:250,000, 1:50,000 and 1:10,000. The 1:625,000 and 1:250,000 scales show both onshore and offshore geology (the 1:250,000 series covers the entire UK continental shelf), whilst other scales generally cover exposures on land only.
Sheets of all scales (though not for all areas) fall into two categories:
The maps are superimposed over a topographic map base produced by Ordnance Survey, and use symbols to represent fault lines, strike and dip or geological units, boreholes etc. Colors are used to represent different geological units. Explanatory booklets (memoirs) are produced for many sheets at the 1:50,000 scale.
We Will Rock You -- Geologic Map Day the U.S. Geological Survey Is Partnering with the American Geosciences Institute, the Association of American State Geologists and Others to Promote the Importance of Geologic Mapping to Society
Sep 18, 2013; RESTON, VA -- The following information was released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Celebrate the second annual Geologic...