Gaston

Gaston

[gas-tuhn; Fr. ga-stawn]
Eyskens, Gaston, 1905-88, Belgian political leader. He became a professor at the Univ. of Louvain in 1931. A Christian Socialist member of parliament (1939-73), he headed the ministry of finance (1945, 1947-49, 1965-66), served as governor of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (1947-49), and was minister of economic affairs (1950). He was three times prime minister (1949, 1958-61, 1968-72). In his second term, Belgium ceded independence to Congo (Kinshasa), and in his last term he attempted to resolve the long-standing friction between Belgium's French-speaking and Dutch-speaking communities.
Orléans, Gaston, duc d', 1608-60, son of King Henry IV and Marie de' Medici, younger brother of Louis XIII. He took part in many of the conspiracies of the great nobles against Louis XIII's minister, Cardinal Richelieu, and several times fled from France. Although Gaston was pardoned after each revolt, his associates did not fare so well; the younger Henri de Montmorency and the marquis de Cinq Mars were executed. After the death (1643) of Louis XIII, Gaston became lieutenant general of France and successfully campaigned against the Spanish. For his leading part in the Fronde he was exiled (1652) to Blois. Gaston was the father of Mlle de Montpensier.
Doumergue, Gaston, 1863-1937, president of the French republic (1924-31). He entered national politics in 1893 as a Radical Socialist deputy and served in various cabinets before and during World War I. After serving as president he retired, but when the cabinet of Édouard Daladier fell in Feb., 1934, as a result of the Stavisky Affair, Doumergue was called on to be the "strong man" of France and to restore order. Premier of a coalition cabinet, he asked for extraordinary powers to meet the financial and political crises. These demands caused the fall of his cabinet, which was succeeded (Nov., 1934) by another under P. E. Flandin.
Bachelard, Gaston, 1884-1962, French philosopher. He held degrees in physics, mathematics, and philosophy and taught at Dijon (1930-40) and the Univ. of Paris (1940-54). Bachelard regarded knowing as a result of the interaction between reason and experience. He rejected the notion of the empirical world as entirely random or senseless. At the same time he rejected the Cartesian idea that the larger view of reality is preordained and progressively uncovered through the accumulation of new scientific facts. Bachelard argued that new scientific knowledge may lead to a fundamental reformulation of reality, just as the preexisting formulation of reality that the observer imposed on the natural world may have predisposed him to entertain some hypotheses but not others. Given the dialectic of reason and experience, reformulation of reality involves not the rejection but rather the recasting of previous formulations. Bachelard was not, despite his scientific orientation, a thorough-going rationalist; he considered imagination and reverie as well as reason to be creative forces in knowing. Psychoanalysis and literary criticism figure prominently in his work. Among his books are La Psychanalyse du feu (1932; tr. Psychoanalysis of Fire, 1964) and On Poetic Imagination and Reverie (tr. 1971).

See study by M. Tiles (1984).

(born March 19, 1882, Paris, Fr.—died Oct. 18, 1935, New York, N.Y., U.S.) French-born U.S. sculptor. Son of a cabinetmaker, he was trained in the decorative arts and studied sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts (1898–1904). He was a designer of Art Nouveau decorative objects for René Lalique before immigrating to the U.S. in 1906. His most famous work, Standing Woman (1912–27), a female nude with ample breasts and thighs and sinuous, tapered limbs, typifies the image he worked and reworked throughout his career. He is also known for his portrait busts of John Marin, Marianne Moore, E.E. Cummings, and others.

Learn more about Lachaise, Gaston with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 19, 1882, Paris, Fr.—died Oct. 18, 1935, New York, N.Y., U.S.) French-born U.S. sculptor. Son of a cabinetmaker, he was trained in the decorative arts and studied sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts (1898–1904). He was a designer of Art Nouveau decorative objects for René Lalique before immigrating to the U.S. in 1906. His most famous work, Standing Woman (1912–27), a female nude with ample breasts and thighs and sinuous, tapered limbs, typifies the image he worked and reworked throughout his career. He is also known for his portrait busts of John Marin, Marianne Moore, E.E. Cummings, and others.

Learn more about Lachaise, Gaston with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Gaston is a town in Washington Township, Delaware County, Indiana, United States. The population was 1,010 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Muncie, IN Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Gaston is located at (40.313547, -85.500848).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.9 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,010 people, 351 households, and 261 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,881.0 people per square mile (1,114.2/km²). There were 376 housing units at an average density of 1,072.5/sq mi (414.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.22% White, 0.59% African American, and 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.20% of the population.

There were 351 households out of which 44.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.4% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the town the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.6 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $31,853, and the median income for a family was $37,583. Males had a median income of $28,558 versus $23,281 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,357. About 10.5% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.3% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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