Gallia Narbonensis (Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Narbonese Gaul lay between the Alps, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Cévennes Mountains. It comprised what is now southeastern France.
The area became a Roman province in 121 BC, originally under the name of Gallia Transalpina (Transalpine Gaul). This name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. Transalpine means "the far side of the Alps", while Cisalpine means "this side of the Alps". Cisalpine Gaul was on the east of the Alps range, in what is now northern Italy and parts of France; while Transalpine Gaul was to the west, in what is now south-east France. Together, the regions made up the region of Gaul, which was called Gallia by the Romans.
At one point, Narbonese Gaul and Transalpine Gaul were governed as separate territories - when the Second Triumvirate was formed, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul and Spain, while Antony was given Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul.
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