A front end processor
(FEP), or a communications processor
, is a small-sized computer
which interfaces to the host computer
a number of networks
, such as SNA
, or a number of peripheral devices
, such as terminals
, disk units
and tape units
. Data is transferred between the host computer and the front end processor using a high-speed parallel interface
. The front end processor communicates with peripheral devices using slower serial interfaces
, usually also through communication networks. The purpose is to off-load from the host computer the work of managing the peripheral devices, transmiting and receiving messages, packet assembly and disassembly, error detection, and error correction. Two examples are the IBM 3705 Communications Controller
and the Burroughs
Data Communications Processor.
Sometimes FEP is synonymous with a communications controller, although the latter is usually not as flexible.
Front end processor is also used in a more general sense in asymmetric multi-processor systems. The FEP is a processing device (usually a computer) which is closer to the input source than is the main processor. It performs some task such as telemetry control, data collection, reduction of raw sensor data, analysis of keyboard input, etc.
Communications FEPs in IP era
FEPs are responsible for linking client applications and their associated networks to host computer based applications. With the advent of the Internet and of IP
as a universal protocol, it is often assumed that there is no longer any need for FEPs , which traditionally handled SNA traffic. This may be true where FEPs provide only straight connectivity (and assuming IP address never changes). However, FEPs also perform other vital functions, that are closely linked to transaction applications, including message and transaction switching, multiplexing
, transaction security, QoS
guarantors, and end-to-end transaction management and reporting. The need for these functions is especially important in mission critical transaction environments such as banking, government, point-of-sale, security, and health care applications. In these environments, FEP functionality is more necessary than ever before.
Although the IBM Corporation withdrew its 3745/3746 Communications Front End Processors from marketing in 2003, the company continues to maintain the estimated 20,000 installed front end processors. IBM also provides microcode enhancement features. Smaller companies have filled the void created by IBM's action, providing machines, features, parts and services worldwide.