Front (Soviet Army)

A Front (фронт) was a major military organization in the Soviet Army, roughly equivalent to an army group in the military terminology of other countries with the exception of Germany during the Second World War. It should not to be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime.

An interesting and important distinction between the two is that a Soviet front typically has its own organic tactical fixed-wing Army-sized air force. This Air Army is directly subordinated to the Front commander (typically a ground commander). The entire front might report either to STAVKA or a TVD, or Teatr Voennykh DeistviiTheatre of Military Operations.

The Soviet fronts were first raised during the Russian Civil War and were activated for the Polish-Soviet War of 1920, Soviet-Finnish War of 1939, Invasion of Poland in 1939, and during Second World War.

During WW2 and the Cold War, fronts and their staffs were integrated with various Military Districts, or became "Group of Soviet Forces in the Warsaw Pact organisation. It should be noted that not all Military Districts could form a Front, and some do not have an organic Air Army.

List of Soviet Fronts in the Russian Civil War

The fronts created during the Russian Civil War were later known as the Ist formation fronts.

List of Soviet fronts in World War II

The degree of change in the structure and performance of individual fronts can only be understood when seen in the context of the Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II.

Soviet fronts in the European Theatre during the Second World War from 1941 to 1945:

See also

Citations and notes


  • John Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1975
  • David Glantz, Colossus Reborn: The Red Army at War 1941-43, University Press of Kansas, 2005

Further reading

External links

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