French Sudan (Soudan) was a colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence, first from 1890 to 1899, then from 1920 to 1960, when the territory became the independent nation of Mali.
It was created as a French
territory on September 9
as "Upper Senegal", and was renamed the "French Sudan Territory" on August 18
, with its capital at Kayes
. On October 10
French Sudan was broken up; 11 southern provinces went to French Guinea
, the Côte d'Ivoire
, although two were returned in the following year.
In 1902 the parts of the colony not organized into military districts became Senegambia and Niger, then Upper Senegal and Niger in 1904, then the old name came back in a reorganization of 1920.
When the French Upper Volta was first abolished in 1933 (it was reestablished in 1947), French Sudan picked up some of its provinces.
After the 4 October
French constitutional referendum, the "République Soudanaise" became a member of the French Community
, once again with the name French Sudan, and gained complete internal autonomy 25 November 1958
On 4 April 1959, French Sudan was joined with Senegal to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent within the French Community on June 20 1960. The federation collapsed on August 20 1960, when Senegal seceded. On 22 September, French Sudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community.
- Sudan (region): the sudan or soudan climate region, of which French Soudan formed the western part.