Definitions

Frederick

Frederick

[fred-rik, -er-ik]
Soddy, Frederick, 1877-1956, English chemist. He worked under Lord Rutherford at McGill Univ. and with Sir William Ramsay at the Univ. of London. After serving (1910-14) as lecturer in physical chemistry and radioactivity at the Univ. of Glasgow, he was professor of chemistry at the Univ. of Aberdeen (1914-19) and at Oxford (1919-36). He was especially noted for his research in radioactivity. With others he discovered a relationship between radioactive elements and the parent compound, which led to his theory of isotopes; for this work he won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His scientific books have become classics and include The Interpretation of Radium (1909, rev. ed. 1922), Matter and Energy (1912), The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements (2 parts, 1911-14), and Atomic Transmutation (1953). An advocate of technocracy and of the social credit movement, he wrote several books setting forth his political and economic views.
Wiseman, Frederick, 1930-, American documentary filmmaker, b. Boston, grad. Williams College (B.A., 1951), Yale Law School (L.L.B., 1954). Wiseman practiced and taught law for about a decade, but his real interests lay elsewhere. His first film, Titicut Follies (1967), is a harrowingly realistic look at a Massachusetts state hospital for the criminally insane. With this work, he became known as a cinéma vérité master possessed of keen socio-psychological insights. His next films reveal a pervasive dehumanization as they examine various American institutions through the portrayal of a single example; they include High School (1969), Hospital (1970), Juvenile Court (1973), and Welfare (1975). Some later films, such as Model (1980), The Store (1983), Central Park (1990), and Ballet (1995), explore other sorts of people and places. Wiseman also entered the world of the physically challenged in three mid-1980s works. Wiseman is usually the producer-director and sometimes a writer, editor, or actor for his many films, which are mostly black and white, with neither narration nor musical soundtracks, and eschew editorialization. Wiseman has also occasionally made fictional works: The Stunt Man (1980), Seraphita's Diary (1982), and The Last Letter (2002).

See studies by T. R. Atkins, ed. (1976), T. W. Benson and C. Anderson (1989, rev. ed. 2002), and B. K. Grant (1992).

Temple, Frederick, 1821-1902, Anglican prelate, archbishop of Canterbury, b. Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Islands. A fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, he was ordained a priest in 1847. He was an advocate of educational reform and schooling for the poor, and from 1848 to 1857 he worked in the government education dept. He was appointed headmaster of Rugby in 1857. An essay published in the controversial Essays and Reviews (1860) awakened suspicions that Temple leaned toward radicalism. When Gladstone nominated him (1869) to the bishopric of Exeter there was much protest. However, he was consecrated in that year and in 1885 was made bishop of London. In his later years he was often in conflict with the High Church party. In 1896 he was created archbishop of Canterbury, and a year later he and the archbishop of York issued the official rebuttal to the papal encyclical that denied the validity of Anglican orders. His works include The Relations Between Religion and Science (1885).

See Memoirs of Archbishop Temple by Seven Friends (ed. E. G. Sandford, 2 vol., 1906).

Funston, Frederick, 1865-1917, U.S. general, b. New Carlisle, Ohio. He was a newspaper reporter and a field agent (1888-95) of the Dept. of Agriculture, exploring Death Valley and the Yukon. Love of adventure led him to enlist in the army of Máximo Gómez y Báez to help win Cuban independence from Spain. As a result of this experience, he was called to head a Kansas regiment in the Spanish-American War. Although his troops took no active part in the war itself, they were sent to the Philippine Islands to help put down the insurrection there. When his army discharge papers were already made out, Funston by a daring feat captured the insurgent leader, Emilio Aguinaldo. Instead of leaving the army he became a brigadier general. In 1914 when U.S. troops entered the city of Veracruz, he was given command of the occupying troops, and as major general he commanded later in wars on the Mexican border. He wrote Memories of Two Wars (1911).
Sanger, Frederick, 1918-, British biochemist, grad. Cambridge (B.A., 1939; Ph.D., 1943). He continued his research at Cambridge after 1943. He won the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on insulin, accomplishing the first determination of the amino acid sequence (primary structure) of a protein of the insulin molecule. In 1980, he shared the Nobel Prize (with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert) for developing a method, important in recombinant DNA research, for rapidly determining the chemical structure of pieces of DNA.
Reines, Frederick, 1918-99, American physicist, b. Paterson, N.J., Ph.D. New York Univ., 1944. He was a researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory (1944-59), a professor at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve Univ.) (1959-66), and a professor at the Univ. of California, Irvine, until his death in 1999. Reines shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics with Martin Perl for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics. Raines, in collaboration with Clyde Cowan, was the first to detect the neutrino; the two scientists also conducted a comprehensive investigation of its properties. One of the fundamental particles that make up the universe, neutrinos are similar to electrons but electrically neutral. Their existence had been postulated in the 1930s by Wolfgang Pauli, but Reines and Cowan were the first to observe them.
Palmer, Frederick, 1873-1958, American writer and war correspondent, b. Pleasantville, Pa. He began war reporting in the Greco-Turkish War (1896-97), reaching the height of his fame as a correspondent during World War I. In World War II he was with the British army in France and the American army in Europe and the Pacific. His writings include novels, biographies, and many books based on his experiences.

See his With My Own Eyes (1933).

Frederick, city (1990 pop. 40,148), seat of Frederick co., NW Md.; settled 1745, inc. 1817. The processing center of a fertile farm and dairying area, it makes beer, household items, optical and glass products, leather goods, clothing, and electronic equipment. The largest employer, however, is Fort Detrick, a U.S. Army medical research center. Frederick was an important grain-trading center and a stop on the road west to the Ohio valley. In the Civil War, Confederate troops passed through the city en route to the battle of Antietam (see Antietam campaign). Points of interest include the grave of Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the house of Barbara Frietchie, legendary Civil War heroine. Hood College and the Maryland School for the Deaf are in Frederick. The Monocacy National Battlefield is nearby.
Howard, Frederick, 5th earl of Carlisle: see Carlisle, Frederick Howard, 5th earl of.
Delius, Frederick, 1862-1934, English composer, of German parentage. Influenced by Grieg, Delius combined romanticism and impressionism in his music, which is characterized by rather free structure and rich chromatic harmony. From 1886 to 1888 he studied in Leipzig, where his suite Florida (1887) was first performed. His works were appreciated earlier in Germany than in his native land, but recognition in England did come in his later years. Among his finest works are the orchestral pieces Brigg Fair (1907), On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring (1912), and North Country Sketches (1914). The best of his six operas is A Village Romeo and Juliet (1907). Outstanding also are his choral works Sea Drift (1906); A Mass of Life (1909), with text from Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra; and Song of the High Hills (1920). He also composed chamber music, concertos, and songs. In the 1920s Delius became blind and paralyzed but continued to compose and revise with the assistance of an amanuensis, Eric Fenby. His last public appearance was in London in 1929 at a six-day festival of his works organized by Sir Thomas Beecham.

See biographies by C. Delius (1935), Sir Thomas Beecham (1959, rev. ed. 1975), G. Jahoda (1969), and A. Jefferson (1972).

Barbarossa, Frederick: see Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Stock, Frederick (Friedrich Wilhelm August Stock), 1872-1942, German-American conductor and composer. He came to the United States in 1895 as a violist in the Chicago Orchestra and became (1899) assistant conductor. As permanent conductor from 1905 until his death, Stock was responsible for the many premieres of new works. His own compositions include songs, orchestral works, and chamber music.
Douglass, Frederick, c.1817-1895, American abolitionist, b. near Easton, Md. The son of a black slave, Harriet Bailey, and an unknown white father, he took the name of Douglass (from Scott's hero in The Lady of the Lake) after his second, and successful, attempt to escape from slavery in 1838. At New Bedford, Mass., he found work as a day laborer. An extemporaneous speech before a meeting at Nantucket of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in 1841 was so effective that he was made one of its agents. Douglass, who had learned to read and write while in the service of a kind mistress in Baltimore, published his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass in 1845. Fearing capture as a fugitive slave, he spent several years in England and Ireland and returned in 1847, after English friends had purchased his freedom. At Rochester, N.Y., he established the North Star and edited it for 17 years in the abolitionist cause. Unlike William L. Garrison, he favored the use of political methods and thus became a follower of James G. Birney. In the Civil War he helped organize two regiments of Massachusetts African Americans and urged other blacks to join the Union ranks. During Reconstruction he continued to urge civil rights for African Americans. He was secretary of the Santo Domingo Commission (1871), marshal of the District of Columbia (1877-81), recorder of deeds for the same district (1881-86), and minister to Haiti (1889-91). Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1962) is a revised edition of his autobiography, which has also been published as My Bondage and My Freedom.

See also biographies by B. T. Washington (1907), P. Foner (1964), B. Quarles (1968), A. Bontemps (1971), and W. McFreely (1991); E. Fuller, A Star Pointed North (1946); P. S. Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (4 vol., 1950-55).

Marryat, Frederick, 1792-1848, English novelist. He is famous for his thrilling tales of sea adventure. His 24 years of service in the British navy in various parts of the world provided background for his stories. Noted for their humor and robust vigor, his novels include Frank Mildmay (1829), Peter Simple (1834), Mr. Midshipman Easy (1836), and Snarleyyow; or, The Dog Fiend (1837). In his later years he devoted himself to writing adventure books for children, notably Masterman Ready (1841) and The Children of the New Forest (1847). A trip (1837-39) to North America resulted in his unfavorable account of American manners, A Diary in America (1839).

See The Life and Letters of Captain Marryat (1872) by his daughter F. Marryat; biography by D. Hannay (1889, repr. 1973).

Philipse, Frederick, 1626-1702, merchant and landowner in colonial America, b. Holland. He went (1647) with his family to New Amsterdam, where he became wealthy as a merchant. He bought (1672) a large estate, Philipse Manor, and later erected a church and also Philipsburg Manor at Upper Mills, North Tarrytown, N.Y. His town house in New York City was confiscated by the New York state government in the American Revolution (see Morris, Roger).
The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 170731 March 1751) was a member of the Hanoverian and British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II and father of George III. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was in the direct line of succession to the British throne. He moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father, and became the Prince of Wales. He predeceased his father however, and the throne, upon the death of George II on 25 October 1760, passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, who reigned as King George III from 1760 until 1820.

Frederick served as the tenth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, from 1728 to 1751.

Prince Frederick had a hostile relationship with his parents.

Early life

Prince Frederick Louis (slightly-less commonly rendered Lewis), the grandson of the then Elector of Hanover (later George I) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, was born in Hanover, Germany as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover. His godparents were his grandfather The Elector and his great-uncle The King in Prussia. His parents, Prince George (later George II) and Princess Caroline of Ansbach, were called upon to leave the country when their eldest son was only seven years old, and they did not see him again until he arrived in England in 1728 as a grown man. By then, they had several younger children, and they rejected Frederick both as their son and as a person, referring to him as a "foundling" and nicknaming him "Griff", short for the mythical beast known as a griffin.

His grandfather created him Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham in the county of Kent, Viscount Launceston in the county of Cornwall and Baron Snowdon in the county of Carnarvon, on 26 July 1726.

Prince of Wales

The motives for the ill-feeling between Frederick and his parents may include the fact that he had been set up by his grandfather, even as a small child, as the representative of the house of Hanover, and was used to presiding over official occasions in the absence of his parents. He was not permitted to go to Great Britain until his father took the throne as George II on 11 June 1727. In fact, Frederick continued to be known as Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover (with his British HRH style) even after his father had been created Prince of Wales. Frederick was created Prince of Wales on 8 January 1729.

He had a will of his own and sponsored a court of ‘opposition’ politicians at his residence, Leicester House. Frederick and his group supported the Opera of the Nobility in Lincoln's Inn Fields as a rival to Handel's royally-sponsored opera at the King’s Theatre in Drury Lane. Frederick was a genuine lover of music who played the cello; he is depicted as a cellist in an oil portrait by Philip Mercier of Frederick and his sisters, now part of the National Portrait Gallery collection He enjoyed the natural sciences and the arts, and became a thorn in the side of his parents, thwarting their every ambition and making a point of opposing them in everything, according to the court gossip Lord Hervey. At court, the favourite was Frederick's younger brother, Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, to the extent that the king looked into ways of passing over Frederick in the succession.

A permanent result of Frederick's patronage of the arts is "Rule Britannia", one of the best-known British patriotic songs. It was written by the Scottish poet and playwright James Thomson as part of the masque Alfred which was first performed in 1745 at Cliveden, the country home of the Prince and Princess of Wales.

A masque linking the Prince with both the ancient hero-king Alfred the Great's victories over the Vikings and with the contemporary issue of building up the British sea power obviously went well with Frederick's political plans and aspirations.

Later the words, set to music by Thomas Arne - another of Frederick's favorite artists - got a permanent life of his own regardless of the masque. Thomson, who supported the Prince of Wales politically, also dedicated to him an earlier major work, Liberty (1734).

Patron of the arts

Unlike the king, Frederick was a knowledgeable amateur of painting, who patronized immigrant artists like Amigoni (illustration above right) and Jean Baptiste Vanloo, who painted the portraits of the prince and his consort for Frederick's champion William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath. The list of other artists he employed—Philip Mercier, John Wootton, Phillips and the French engraver Joseph Goupy—represents some of the principal figures of the English Rococo. William Kent's neo-Palladian state barge of 1732 is still preserved, though Sir William Chambers' palace at Kew for his widow Augusta (1757) was demolished in 1802.

Domestic life

Quickly accumulating large debts, Frederick relied for an income on his wealthy friend, George Bubb Dodington. The Prince's father refused to make him the financial allowance that the Prince considered should have been his, and Parliament was obliged to intervene, resulting in further bad feeling between the two.

Although in his youth he was undoubtedly a spendthrift and womaniser, Frederick settled down, on his marriage, in 1736, to the sixteen-year-old Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and soon became a devoted family man, taking his wife and eight children (his youngest daughter was born posthumously) to live in the countryside at Cliveden, since he was effectively banished from court.

Cricket

By the time Frederick arrived in Great Britain, cricket had developed into the country's most popular team sport and it thrived on gambling. Perhaps because he wished to "anglicise" and so fit in with his new society, Frederick developed an academic interest in cricket that soon became a genuine enthusiasm. He began to make wagers and then to patronise and play the sport, even forming his own team on several occasions.

The earliest mention of Frederick in cricket annals is in a contemporary report that concerns a major match on Tuesday 28 September 1731 between Surrey and London, played on Kennington Common. No post-match report was found despite advance promotion as "likely to be the best performance of this kind that has been seen for some time". It is interesting that "for the convenience of the gamesters, the ground is to be staked and roped out" which was a new practice in 1731 and could have been done partly for the benefit of a royal visitor. The advertisement refers to "the whole county of Surrey" as London’s opponents and states that the Prince of Wales is "expected to attend" . In August 1732, the Whitehall Evening Post reported that Frederick attended "a great cricket match" at Kew on Thursday 27 July .

By the 1733 season, he was really getting involved. We read of him giving a guinea to each player in a Surrey v Middlesex game at Moulsey Hurst . Then he awarded a silver cup to a combined Surrey & Middlesex team which had just beaten Kent, arguably the best county team at the time, at Moulsey Hurst on Wed 1 August . This is the first reference in cricket history to any kind of trophy (other than hard cash) being contested. On Friday 31 August, the Prince of Wales' XI played Sir William Gage's XI on Moulsey Hurst. The result is unknown but the teams were said to be of county standard, so presumably it was in effect a Surrey v Sussex match .

In the years following 1733, there are frequent references to the Prince of Wales as a patron of cricket and as an occasional player, though it is doubtful if he was actually any good as a player.

When he died on 31 March 1751, cricket suffered a double impact for his death closely followed that of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, who was the game's greatest patron. The loss of these patrons had an adverse impact on the game’s finances and the number of top-class matches reduced for some years to come, although economic difficulties arising from the wars of the period certainly inhibited many potential investors .

It has frequently been said that the Prince of Wales died as a result of being struck on the head by a cricket ball. He may well have been hit on the head but that did not kill him; the cause of death was a burst abscess in a lung. Cricket has had its share of fatalities in its time, but Prince Frederick Louis was not one of them.

Later life

His political ambitions remained unfulfilled, because he died prematurely at the age of forty-four. The cause of death has been commonly attributed to an abscess created by a blow by a cricket ball or a tennis ball, but a burst abscess in the lung was given as the cause of death. Frederick died at Leicester House in London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 1 February 17071 August 1714: His Serene Highness Prince Frederick of Hanover
  • 1 August 1714–26 July 1726: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick
  • 26 July 1726–11 June 1727: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh
  • 11 June 1727–8 January 1729: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall and Edinburgh
  • 8 January 1729–31 March 1751: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales

Arms

Between his creation as Duke of Edinburgh in 1726 and his creation as Prince of Wales, he bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a cross gules. As Prince of Wales, the difference changed to simply a label argent of three points.

Ancestry

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick 31 August 1737 31 March 1813 married, 1764, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick; had issue
George III 4 June 1738 29 January 1820 married, 1761, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue
Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of York 14 March 1739 17 September 1767
Princess Elizabeth 30 December 1740 4 September 1759
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester 14 November 1743 25 August 1805 married, 1766, Maria Waldegrave, Countess Waldegrave; had issue
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland 27 November 1745 18 September 1790 married, 1771, Anne Horton; no issue
Princess Louisa 8 March 1749 13 May 1768
Prince Frederick 13 May 1750 29 December 1765
Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 11 July 1751 10 May 1775 married, 1766, Christian VII of Denmark; had issue

Legacy

"Here lies poor Fred who was alive and is dead,
Had it been his father I had much rather,
Had it been his sister nobody would have missed her,
Had it been his brother, still better than another,
Had it been the whole generation, so much better for the nation,
But since it is Fred who was alive and is dead,
There is no more to be said!"

References

External links

Bibliography

  • F S Ashley-Cooper, At the Sign of the Wicket: Cricket 1742-1751, Cricket Magazine, 1900
  • G B Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell, 1935
  • Timothy J McCann, Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century, Sussex Record Society, 2004
  • Thomson, Arthur Alexander: Odd Men In: A Gallery of Cricket Eccentics (The Pavilion Library, 1985).
  • H T Waghorn, Cricket Scores, Notes, etc. (1730-1773), Blackwood, 1899
  • H T Waghorn, The Dawn of Cricket, Electric Press, 1906
  • Michael De-la-Noy, The King Who Never Was: The Story of Frederick, Prince of Wales, London; Chester Springs, PA: Peter Owen, 1996.
  • John Walters, The Royal Griffin: Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707-51, London: Jarrolds, 1972.

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