Definitions

Frederick

Frederick

[fred-rik, -er-ik]
Soddy, Frederick, 1877-1956, English chemist. He worked under Lord Rutherford at McGill Univ. and with Sir William Ramsay at the Univ. of London. After serving (1910-14) as lecturer in physical chemistry and radioactivity at the Univ. of Glasgow, he was professor of chemistry at the Univ. of Aberdeen (1914-19) and at Oxford (1919-36). He was especially noted for his research in radioactivity. With others he discovered a relationship between radioactive elements and the parent compound, which led to his theory of isotopes; for this work he won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His scientific books have become classics and include The Interpretation of Radium (1909, rev. ed. 1922), Matter and Energy (1912), The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements (2 parts, 1911-14), and Atomic Transmutation (1953). An advocate of technocracy and of the social credit movement, he wrote several books setting forth his political and economic views.
Wiseman, Frederick, 1930-, American documentary filmmaker, b. Boston, grad. Williams College (B.A., 1951), Yale Law School (L.L.B., 1954). Wiseman practiced and taught law for about a decade, but his real interests lay elsewhere. His first film, Titicut Follies (1967), is a harrowingly realistic look at a Massachusetts state hospital for the criminally insane. With this work, he became known as a cinéma vérité master possessed of keen socio-psychological insights. His next films reveal a pervasive dehumanization as they examine various American institutions through the portrayal of a single example; they include High School (1969), Hospital (1970), Juvenile Court (1973), and Welfare (1975). Some later films, such as Model (1980), The Store (1983), Central Park (1990), and Ballet (1995), explore other sorts of people and places. Wiseman also entered the world of the physically challenged in three mid-1980s works. Wiseman is usually the producer-director and sometimes a writer, editor, or actor for his many films, which are mostly black and white, with neither narration nor musical soundtracks, and eschew editorialization. Wiseman has also occasionally made fictional works: The Stunt Man (1980), Seraphita's Diary (1982), and The Last Letter (2002).

See studies by T. R. Atkins, ed. (1976), T. W. Benson and C. Anderson (1989, rev. ed. 2002), and B. K. Grant (1992).

Temple, Frederick, 1821-1902, Anglican prelate, archbishop of Canterbury, b. Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Islands. A fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, he was ordained a priest in 1847. He was an advocate of educational reform and schooling for the poor, and from 1848 to 1857 he worked in the government education dept. He was appointed headmaster of Rugby in 1857. An essay published in the controversial Essays and Reviews (1860) awakened suspicions that Temple leaned toward radicalism. When Gladstone nominated him (1869) to the bishopric of Exeter there was much protest. However, he was consecrated in that year and in 1885 was made bishop of London. In his later years he was often in conflict with the High Church party. In 1896 he was created archbishop of Canterbury, and a year later he and the archbishop of York issued the official rebuttal to the papal encyclical that denied the validity of Anglican orders. His works include The Relations Between Religion and Science (1885).

See Memoirs of Archbishop Temple by Seven Friends (ed. E. G. Sandford, 2 vol., 1906).

Funston, Frederick, 1865-1917, U.S. general, b. New Carlisle, Ohio. He was a newspaper reporter and a field agent (1888-95) of the Dept. of Agriculture, exploring Death Valley and the Yukon. Love of adventure led him to enlist in the army of Máximo Gómez y Báez to help win Cuban independence from Spain. As a result of this experience, he was called to head a Kansas regiment in the Spanish-American War. Although his troops took no active part in the war itself, they were sent to the Philippine Islands to help put down the insurrection there. When his army discharge papers were already made out, Funston by a daring feat captured the insurgent leader, Emilio Aguinaldo. Instead of leaving the army he became a brigadier general. In 1914 when U.S. troops entered the city of Veracruz, he was given command of the occupying troops, and as major general he commanded later in wars on the Mexican border. He wrote Memories of Two Wars (1911).
Sanger, Frederick, 1918-, British biochemist, grad. Cambridge (B.A., 1939; Ph.D., 1943). He continued his research at Cambridge after 1943. He won the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on insulin, accomplishing the first determination of the amino acid sequence (primary structure) of a protein of the insulin molecule. In 1980, he shared the Nobel Prize (with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert) for developing a method, important in recombinant DNA research, for rapidly determining the chemical structure of pieces of DNA.
Reines, Frederick, 1918-99, American physicist, b. Paterson, N.J., Ph.D. New York Univ., 1944. He was a researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory (1944-59), a professor at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve Univ.) (1959-66), and a professor at the Univ. of California, Irvine, until his death in 1999. Reines shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics with Martin Perl for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics. Raines, in collaboration with Clyde Cowan, was the first to detect the neutrino; the two scientists also conducted a comprehensive investigation of its properties. One of the fundamental particles that make up the universe, neutrinos are similar to electrons but electrically neutral. Their existence had been postulated in the 1930s by Wolfgang Pauli, but Reines and Cowan were the first to observe them.
Palmer, Frederick, 1873-1958, American writer and war correspondent, b. Pleasantville, Pa. He began war reporting in the Greco-Turkish War (1896-97), reaching the height of his fame as a correspondent during World War I. In World War II he was with the British army in France and the American army in Europe and the Pacific. His writings include novels, biographies, and many books based on his experiences.

See his With My Own Eyes (1933).

Frederick, city (1990 pop. 40,148), seat of Frederick co., NW Md.; settled 1745, inc. 1817. The processing center of a fertile farm and dairying area, it makes beer, household items, optical and glass products, leather goods, clothing, and electronic equipment. The largest employer, however, is Fort Detrick, a U.S. Army medical research center. Frederick was an important grain-trading center and a stop on the road west to the Ohio valley. In the Civil War, Confederate troops passed through the city en route to the battle of Antietam (see Antietam campaign). Points of interest include the grave of Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the house of Barbara Frietchie, legendary Civil War heroine. Hood College and the Maryland School for the Deaf are in Frederick. The Monocacy National Battlefield is nearby.
Howard, Frederick, 5th earl of Carlisle: see Carlisle, Frederick Howard, 5th earl of.
Delius, Frederick, 1862-1934, English composer, of German parentage. Influenced by Grieg, Delius combined romanticism and impressionism in his music, which is characterized by rather free structure and rich chromatic harmony. From 1886 to 1888 he studied in Leipzig, where his suite Florida (1887) was first performed. His works were appreciated earlier in Germany than in his native land, but recognition in England did come in his later years. Among his finest works are the orchestral pieces Brigg Fair (1907), On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring (1912), and North Country Sketches (1914). The best of his six operas is A Village Romeo and Juliet (1907). Outstanding also are his choral works Sea Drift (1906); A Mass of Life (1909), with text from Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra; and Song of the High Hills (1920). He also composed chamber music, concertos, and songs. In the 1920s Delius became blind and paralyzed but continued to compose and revise with the assistance of an amanuensis, Eric Fenby. His last public appearance was in London in 1929 at a six-day festival of his works organized by Sir Thomas Beecham.

See biographies by C. Delius (1935), Sir Thomas Beecham (1959, rev. ed. 1975), G. Jahoda (1969), and A. Jefferson (1972).

Barbarossa, Frederick: see Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Stock, Frederick (Friedrich Wilhelm August Stock), 1872-1942, German-American conductor and composer. He came to the United States in 1895 as a violist in the Chicago Orchestra and became (1899) assistant conductor. As permanent conductor from 1905 until his death, Stock was responsible for the many premieres of new works. His own compositions include songs, orchestral works, and chamber music.
Douglass, Frederick, c.1817-1895, American abolitionist, b. near Easton, Md. The son of a black slave, Harriet Bailey, and an unknown white father, he took the name of Douglass (from Scott's hero in The Lady of the Lake) after his second, and successful, attempt to escape from slavery in 1838. At New Bedford, Mass., he found work as a day laborer. An extemporaneous speech before a meeting at Nantucket of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in 1841 was so effective that he was made one of its agents. Douglass, who had learned to read and write while in the service of a kind mistress in Baltimore, published his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass in 1845. Fearing capture as a fugitive slave, he spent several years in England and Ireland and returned in 1847, after English friends had purchased his freedom. At Rochester, N.Y., he established the North Star and edited it for 17 years in the abolitionist cause. Unlike William L. Garrison, he favored the use of political methods and thus became a follower of James G. Birney. In the Civil War he helped organize two regiments of Massachusetts African Americans and urged other blacks to join the Union ranks. During Reconstruction he continued to urge civil rights for African Americans. He was secretary of the Santo Domingo Commission (1871), marshal of the District of Columbia (1877-81), recorder of deeds for the same district (1881-86), and minister to Haiti (1889-91). Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1962) is a revised edition of his autobiography, which has also been published as My Bondage and My Freedom.

See also biographies by B. T. Washington (1907), P. Foner (1964), B. Quarles (1968), A. Bontemps (1971), and W. McFreely (1991); E. Fuller, A Star Pointed North (1946); P. S. Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (4 vol., 1950-55).

Marryat, Frederick, 1792-1848, English novelist. He is famous for his thrilling tales of sea adventure. His 24 years of service in the British navy in various parts of the world provided background for his stories. Noted for their humor and robust vigor, his novels include Frank Mildmay (1829), Peter Simple (1834), Mr. Midshipman Easy (1836), and Snarleyyow; or, The Dog Fiend (1837). In his later years he devoted himself to writing adventure books for children, notably Masterman Ready (1841) and The Children of the New Forest (1847). A trip (1837-39) to North America resulted in his unfavorable account of American manners, A Diary in America (1839).

See The Life and Letters of Captain Marryat (1872) by his daughter F. Marryat; biography by D. Hannay (1889, repr. 1973).

Philipse, Frederick, 1626-1702, merchant and landowner in colonial America, b. Holland. He went (1647) with his family to New Amsterdam, where he became wealthy as a merchant. He bought (1672) a large estate, Philipse Manor, and later erected a church and also Philipsburg Manor at Upper Mills, North Tarrytown, N.Y. His town house in New York City was confiscated by the New York state government in the American Revolution (see Morris, Roger).

Charles Frederick Worth, detail of an engraving

(born Oct. 13, 1825, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Eng.—died March 10, 1895, Paris, France) British-born French fashion designer. In 1845 he left England, where he had been a bookkeeper, and worked in a Paris dress accessories shop. In 1858 he opened his own ladies' tailor shop and soon gained the patronage of the empress Eugénie. He was a pioneer of the “fashion show” (the preparation and showing of a collection), the first man to become prominent in the field of fashion, and the first designer to create dresses intended to be copied and distributed throughout the world. He became the dictator of Paris fashion and was especially noted for his elegant Second Empire gowns. He invented the bustle, which became standard in women's fashion in the 1870s and '80s.

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known as Bull Halsey

(born Oct. 30, 1882, Elizabeth, N.J., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1959, Fishers Island, N.Y.) U.S. admiral. After graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy, he commanded a destroyer in World War I. He became a naval aviator in 1935, and in 1940 he was promoted to vice admiral. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, his fleet was at sea; the only U.S. naval presence in the Pacific for months, it carried out surprise attacks against Japanese-held islands in the Marshall and Gilbert islands. A leading exponent of carrier-based aircraft, he became famous for his daring and imaginative tactics. As commander of the South Pacific naval forces, he was instrumental in the Japanese defeat at Guadalcanal. In 1944 he became commander of the 3rd Fleet, leading his carrier task force in brilliant air strikes. He was responsible for finding and destroying the Japanese fleet at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. He was promoted to fleet admiral in 1945 and retired in 1947.

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known as Buffalo Bill

William Cody, 1916.

(born Feb. 26, 1846, Scott county, Iowa, U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1917, Denver, Colo.) U.S. buffalo hunter, army scout, and Indian fighter. He became a rider for the Pony Express and later served in the American Civil War. In 1867–68 he hunted buffalo to feed construction crews for the Union Pacific Railroad; he became known as Buffalo Bill after slaughtering 4,280 head of buffalo in eight months. He was a scout for the U.S. 5th Cavalry (1868–72, 1876) as it subdued Indian resistance. His exploits, including the scalping of the Cheyenne warrior Yellow Hair in 1876, were chronicled by reporters and novelists, who made him a folk hero. He began acting in dramas about the West, and in 1883 he organized his first Wild West Show, which included stars such as Annie Oakley and Sitting Bull. The show toured in the U.S. and abroad to wide acclaim.

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(born Dec. 15, 1916, Pongaroa, N.Z.—died Oct. 6, 2004, London, Eng.) New Zealand-born British biophysicist. Educated in Birmingham and Cambridge, he participated in the Manhattan Project, working on the separation of uranium isotopes for use in the atomic bomb. On his return to Britain, he began a series of investigations that led ultimately to his studies of DNA. His X-ray diffraction studies of DNA proved crucial to the determination of DNA's molecular structure by James D. Watson and Francis Crick, for which the three were awarded a 1962 Nobel Prize. He later applied X-ray diffraction techniques to the study of RNA. Seealso Rosalind Franklin.

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(born Jan. 5, 1928, Ceylon, Minn., U.S.) U.S. politician. He was active in Minnesota's Farmer-Labor Party and worked for Hubert H. Humphrey's U.S. Senate campaign in 1948. After graduating from the University of Minnesota law school in 1956, he was Minnesota's attorney general from 1960 to his appointment in 1964 to fill Humphrey's unexpired Senate term when Humphrey won election as vice president under Lyndon B. Johnson. He won election to the Senate in 1966 and reelection in 1972. In 1976 he was elected vice president under Jimmy Carter. In 1984 he won the Democratic presidential nomination but lost the election to Ronald Reagan. He resumed his law practice and later served as ambassador to Japan (1993–96). In 2002 he campaigned for a seat in the U.S. Senate after Paul Wellstone, a Minnesota senator, died in a plane crash days before the election; Mondale was narrowly defeated.

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(born Jan. 22, 1890, Louisa, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 8, 1953, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He served in Congress for all but two years during the period 1923 to 1938. After serving on the U.S. Court of Appeals (1938–43), he held high executive positions, including secretary of the treasury under Pres. Harry Truman. He helped establish the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund. From 1946 to 1953 he was chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. During his tenure he favoured Truman's internal security policies and upheld the equal-protection rights of racial minorities.

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(born Nov. 14, 1861, Portage, Wis., U.S.—died March 14, 1932, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. historian. He taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era. Later he focused on sectionalism as a force in U.S. development. His essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and Significance of Sections in American History (1932, Pulitzer Prize).

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(born March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died March 21, 1915, Philadelphia) U.S. inventor and engineer. He worked at Midvale Steel Co. (1878–90), where he introduced time-and-motion study in order to systematize shop management and reduce manufacturing costs. Though his system provoked resentment and opposition from labour when carried to extremes, it had an immense impact on the development of mass production techniques and has influenced the development of virtually every modern industrial country. Taylor is regarded as the father of scientific management. Seealso production management; Taylorism.

Learn more about Taylor, Frederick W(inslow) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 2, 1877, Eastbourne, Sussex, Eng.—died Sept. 22, 1956, Brighton, Sussex) British chemist. He worked with Ernest Rutherford to develop a theory of the disintegration of radioactive elements. In 1912 he was among the first to conclude that elements might exist in forms (isotopes) of different atomic weights but indistinguishable chemically. In Science and Life (1920) he pointed out the value of isotopes in determining geologic age (see carbon-14 dating). For his investigations of radioactivity and isotopes, he received a 1921 Nobel Prize.

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Frederick Ashton (left) and Robert Helpmann rehearsing their roles as the Ugly Sisters in elipsis

(born Sept. 17, 1904, Guayaquil, Ecua.—died Aug. 18, 1988, Sussex, Eng.) Principal choreographer and director of England's Royal Ballet. After creating ballets from 1925 for the Ballet Club (later Ballet Rambert), he joined the Vic-Wells Ballet (later Royal Ballet) in 1933, becoming principal choreographer, assistant director (1953–63), and director (1963–70). At least 30 of his works remain in its repertoire, including Façade (1931), Symphonic Variations (1946), and Birthday Offering (1956). He also choreographed for companies such as the Royal Danish Ballet (Romeo and Juliet, 1955) and the New York City Ballet (Illuminations, 1950).

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(born May 14, 1847, Cornwallis, Nova Scotia—died Jan. 6, 1917, Canning, Nova Scotia, Can.) Canadian politician. After studying at Harvard University, he returned to Nova Scotia to practice medicine. In 1874 he was elected as a Liberal Party member to the House of Commons, where he served almost continuously until 1911. As minister of militia and defense (1896–1911), he improved the training of the armed services and helped create a Canadian navy.

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(born Nov. 14, 1891, Alliston, Ont., Can.—died Feb. 21, 1941, Nfd.) Canadian physician. He taught at the University of Toronto from 1923. With Charles Best, he was the first to obtain a pancreatic extract of insulin (1921), which, in the laboratory of J.J.R. Macleod, they isolated in a form effective against diabetes. Banting and Macleod received a 1923 Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin; Banting voluntarily shared his portion of the prize with Best.

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(born June 20, 1861, Eastbourne, East Sussex, Eng.—died May 16, 1947, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British biochemist. He discovered the amino acid tryptophan (1901) and showed that it and certain others are essential in the diet and cannot be made in the body from other substances. For his discovery of vitamins, he shared a 1929 Nobel Prize with Christiaan Eijkman. He demonstrated that working muscles accumulate lactic acid and isolated the tripeptide (see peptide) glutathione (1922) and showed that it is vital to utilization of oxygen by cells. He was knighted in 1925.

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(born Aug. 13, 1918, Rendcombe, Gloucestershire, Eng.) British biochemist. Educated at the University of Cambridge, he thereafter worked principally at the Medical Research Council in Cambridge (1951–83). He spent 10 years elucidating the structure of the insulin molecule, determining the exact order of all its amino acids by 1955. His techniques for determining the order in which amino acids are linked in proteins made it possible to discover the structure of many other complex proteins. In 1958 he won a Nobel Prize for his work. In 1980 Sanger became the fourth person ever to be awarded a second Nobel Prize, which he shared with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert (b. 1932), for determining the sequences of nucleotides in the DNA molecule of a small virus.

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(born Dec. 24, 1913, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 30, 1967, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He studied art after graduating from Columbia University. He employed several abstract styles in the 1930s and '40s, but by the early 1950s he had restricted his works to monochrome paintings incorporating symmetrically placed squares and oblong shapes against backgrounds of similar colour, in which drawing, line, brushwork, texture, light, and most other visual elements were suppressed. He explained his style as a conscious search for an art that would be entirely separate from life. He influenced the Minimalist movement of the 1960s, more as a polemicist than as a painter.

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(born July 25, 1870, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died March 10, 1966, Plainfield, N.H.) U.S. illustrator and painter. Trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and Drexel Institute of Art, he was the highest-paid commercial artist and muralist in the U.S. by the 1920s. He is best known for his depictions of fantasy landscapes populated by attractive young women. He used meticulously defined outlines and intricately detailed natural backgrounds; his unusual colours, especially the luminous “Parrish blue,” give his pictures a dreamlike quality. Though his popularity declined in the late 1930s, appreciation of his work revived in the 1960s and '70s.

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(born April 26, 1822, Hartford, Conn., U.S.—died Aug. 28, 1903, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. landscape architect. He traveled throughout the American South in the 1850s and won fame for several books describing its slaveholding culture. During an extended vacation in Europe, he became profoundly impressed with English landscaping, which he described in Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England (1852). In 1857 he was hired as superintendent of New York City's newly planned Central Park. With the architect Calvert Vaux (1824–95), he won a competition to design the park, and he became its chief architect in 1858. The result was a nature-lover's paradise incorporating lawns, woods, ponds, and meandering paths; it represented one of the first attempts in the U.S. to apply art to the improvement of nature in a public park. Other Olmsted parks include Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York City; a Niagara Falls, N.Y., park project; an extensive system of parks and parkways in Boston; and the World's Columbian Exposition (later Jackson Park) in Chicago. As chairman of the first Yosemite commission, he helped secure the area as a permanent public park.

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(born Jan. 5, 1928, Ceylon, Minn., U.S.) U.S. politician. He was active in Minnesota's Farmer-Labor Party and worked for Hubert H. Humphrey's U.S. Senate campaign in 1948. After graduating from the University of Minnesota law school in 1956, he was Minnesota's attorney general from 1960 to his appointment in 1964 to fill Humphrey's unexpired Senate term when Humphrey won election as vice president under Lyndon B. Johnson. He won election to the Senate in 1966 and reelection in 1972. In 1976 he was elected vice president under Jimmy Carter. In 1984 he won the Democratic presidential nomination but lost the election to Ronald Reagan. He resumed his law practice and later served as ambassador to Japan (1993–96). In 2002 he campaigned for a seat in the U.S. Senate after Paul Wellstone, a Minnesota senator, died in a plane crash days before the election; Mondale was narrowly defeated.

Learn more about Mondale, Walter F(rederick) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 15, 1916, Pongaroa, N.Z.—died Oct. 6, 2004, London, Eng.) New Zealand-born British biophysicist. Educated in Birmingham and Cambridge, he participated in the Manhattan Project, working on the separation of uranium isotopes for use in the atomic bomb. On his return to Britain, he began a series of investigations that led ultimately to his studies of DNA. His X-ray diffraction studies of DNA proved crucial to the determination of DNA's molecular structure by James D. Watson and Francis Crick, for which the three were awarded a 1962 Nobel Prize. He later applied X-ray diffraction techniques to the study of RNA. Seealso Rosalind Franklin.

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(born July 10, 1792, London, Eng.—died Aug. 9, 1848, Langham, Norfolk) English naval officer and novelist. He served in the Royal Navy from age 14 until he retired in 1830 as a captain. He then began a series of adventure novels—including The King's Own (1830), Peter Simple (1834), and Poor Jack (1840)—marked by a lucid, direct narrative style, humour, and incidents drawn from his varied experience at sea. His Children of the New Forest (1847), set during the English Civil Wars, is a classic of children's literature.

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Carl Lewis approaching his gold-medal-winning long jump at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.

(born July 1, 1961, Birmingham, Ala., U.S.) U.S. track-and-field athlete. He qualified for the 1980 Olympics but did not participate, because of the U.S. boycott of the Moscow games. At the 1984 Olympics he won the 100-m and 200-m races, the long jump, and the 4 × 100-m relay. At the 1988 Olympics he won the long jump (becoming the first athlete ever to win that event consecutively) and the 100-m race and received a silver medal in the 200-m. In 1992 he again won the long jump and anchored the winning U.S. 4 × 100-m relay team, and in 1996 he astounded observers by winning a fourth consecutive long-jump h1.

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(born Sept. 1, 1878, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.—died Feb. 10, 1966, Falmouth, Cornwall) British military theoretician and historian. He served as chief of staff of the British tank corps in World War I. He planned the surprise attack of 381 tanks at the Battle of Cambrai (Nov. 20, 1917), the first massed tank assault in history. After the war he launched a crusade for the mechanization and modernization of the British army. His emphasis on the armoured offensive met with resistance among English military tacticians, but his teachings were largely vindicated in World War II. His works include Tanks in the Great War (1920), Machine Warfare (1942), and A Military History of the Western World (1954–56).

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(born June 20, 1861, Eastbourne, East Sussex, Eng.—died May 16, 1947, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British biochemist. He discovered the amino acid tryptophan (1901) and showed that it and certain others are essential in the diet and cannot be made in the body from other substances. For his discovery of vitamins, he shared a 1929 Nobel Prize with Christiaan Eijkman. He demonstrated that working muscles accumulate lactic acid and isolated the tripeptide (see peptide) glutathione (1922) and showed that it is vital to utilization of oxygen by cells. He was knighted in 1925.

Learn more about Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 17, 1859, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1935, East Hampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter and printmaker. He studied in Boston and Paris before settling in New York City. From 1898 to 1918 he exhibited together with a group of New York and Boston painters known as The Ten, who became the foremost proponents of U.S. Impressionism. Urban life was his favourite subject, but his landscapes of New England and rural New York also became popular. Paintings such as Washington Arch, Spring (1890) are characterized by clear, luminous atmosphere and brilliant colour. He also produced some 400 etchings and lithographs.

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(born April 16, 1881, Powderham Castle, Devonshire, Eng.—died Dec. 23, 1959, Garroby Hall, near York, Yorkshire) British statesman. He was elected to Parliament in 1910. As viceroy of India (1925–31), he worked on terms of understanding with Mohandas K. Gandhi and accelerated constitutional advances. His tenure as foreign secretary (1938–40) in Neville Chamberlain's government was controversial because of Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward Adolf Hitler, but Halifax kept the post into Winston Churchill's ministry. As ambassador to the U.S. (1941–46), he greatly served the Allied cause in World War II, for which he was created earl of Halifax in 1944.

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(born Jan. 12, 1800, London, Eng.—died June 27, 1870, London) British statesman. After serving as British ambassador to Spain (1833–39), he held various cabinet posts until Lord Aberdeen named him secretary of state for foreign affairs in 1853. Clarendon failed to prevent the outbreak of the Crimean War, and his performance during it was undistinguished, but he secured favourable terms for Britain at the Congress of Paris (1856). He continued in office under Lord Palmerston until 1858 and also served as foreign secretary under Earl Russell (1865–66) and William E. Gladstone (1868–70).

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(born Aug. 4, 1817, Millstone, N.J., U.S.—died May 20, 1885, Newark, N.J.) U.S. politician. Born into a prominent political family, he helped found the New Jersey Republican Party and served as state attorney general (1861–66). He was appointed, then elected, to the U.S. Senate (1866–69, 1871–77). As secretary of state (1881–85) he obtained Pearl Harbor in Hawaii as a U.S. naval base and opened treaty relations with Korea (1882).

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(born March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died March 21, 1915, Philadelphia) U.S. inventor and engineer. He worked at Midvale Steel Co. (1878–90), where he introduced time-and-motion study in order to systematize shop management and reduce manufacturing costs. Though his system provoked resentment and opposition from labour when carried to extremes, it had an immense impact on the development of mass production techniques and has influenced the development of virtually every modern industrial country. Taylor is regarded as the father of scientific management. Seealso production management; Taylorism.

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German Friedrich Wilhelm

(born Oct. 15, 1795, Cölln, near Berlin, Prussia—died Jan. 2, 1861, Potsdam) King of Prussia (1840–61). The son of Frederick William III, he was a disciple of the German Romantic movement and an artistic dilettante, but his conservative policies helped spark the Revolutions of 1848, in opposition. In 1849 he refused the imperial crown offered by the Frankfurt National Assembly. His subsequent efforts to create a German union under Prussian leadership were thwarted by Austria (see Punctation of Olmütz). A stroke left him paralyzed in 1857, and his brother, the future William I, became regent in 1858.

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German Friedrich Wilhelm

(born Aug. 3, 1770, Potsdam, Prussia—died June 7, 1840, Berlin) King of Prussia (1797–1840). The son of Frederick William II, he pursued a policy of neutrality in the early years of the Napoleonic Wars, which accelerated the decline of Prussia's prestige. Prussia joined the third coalition against France in 1806 and suffered crushing defeat at the Battles of Jena and Auerstedt. Defeat convinced the king of the need to make decisive changes. He allowed Prussian statesmen such as Karl August, prince von Hardenberg, and Karl, imperial baron vom Stein, to make domestic reforms, though the state remained absolutist. The Congress of Vienna confirmed Prussia's acquisition of Westphalia and much of Saxony, but the last 25 years of the king's reign brought a downward trend in Prussia's fortunes.

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German Friedrich Wilhelm

(born Sept. 25, 1744, Berlin, Prussia—died Nov. 16, 1797, Berlin) King of Prussia from 1786. He succeeded his uncle Frederick II. Prussia expanded under his rule, adding territories it gained in the second (1793) and third (1795) partitions of Poland and acquiring additional German lands. He entered into an Austro-Prussian alliance, chiefly in opposition to the French Revolution, but signed a separate treaty with France and withdrew from the alliance in 1795 after defeat in the French Revolutionary Wars. Cultural activities, especially music, flourished in his reign; both Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven visited the king and dedicated music to him.

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German Friedrich Wilhelm

(born Aug. 15, 1688, Berlin—died May 31, 1740, Potsdam, Prussia) King of Prussia (1713–40). The son of Frederick I, he received valuable military experience in the War of the Spanish Succession. Realizing that Prussia's military and financial weakness made it dependent on the relations between the great powers, he built up an army that became a strong military presence on the Continent, instituted economic and financial reforms, centralized his administration, encouraged industry and manufacture, mandated compulsory primary education (1717), and freed the serfs on his own domains (1719). He was succeeded by his son, Frederick II.

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German Friedrich Wilhelm known as the Great Elector

(born Feb. 16, 1620, Cölln, near Berlin—died May 9, 1688, Potsdam) Elector of Brandenburg (1640–88) who restored the Hohenzollern dominions after the Thirty Years' War. At his accession to the electorship, Brandenburg was ravaged by war and occupied by foreign troops. He cautiously maintained neutrality between the warring Swedes and Habsburgs, started to build a standing army, and added to his territories with the Peace of Westphalia (1648). In the First Northern War (1655–60) he gained sovereignty over the duchy of Prussia. In the complex power struggles in Europe starting in 1661, he shifted allegiance by always joining with the weaker party, hoping to maintain the balance of power. He issued the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, granting asylum to Huguenots expelled from France. When he died, he left a centralized political administration, sound finances, and an efficient army, laying the foundation for the future Prussian monarchy.

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Danish Frederik

(born Oct. 6, 1808, Amalienborg Castle, Den.—died Nov. 15, 1863, Glücksburg Castle) King of Denmark (1848–63). After the popular demonstrations of 1848, he appointed a liberal ministry, renounced absolute rule, and adopted a representative government. His policy in Schleswig resulted in the duchy's incorporation into Denmark and war with Austria and Prussia soon after his death (see Schleswig-Holstein Question). The childless Frederick was succeeded by Christian IX.

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German Friedrich known as Frederick the Winter King

(born Aug. 26, 1596, Amberg, Upper Palatinate—died Nov. 29, 1632, Mainz) Elector palatine of the Rhine (1610–23) and king of Bohemia (as Frederick I) for one winter (1619–20). The Protestant Bohemian estates revolted against the Catholic emperor Ferdinand II and offered the crown to Frederick (1619), making him head of the Protestant union against Catholic Austria at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. He was soon abandoned by his allies and was routed in the Battle of White Mountain. In 1622 he went into exile in Holland. In 1623 he was deprived of his rights as an elector, and in 1628 the Upper Palatinate was annexed by Bavaria.

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(born Aug. 4, 1817, Millstone, N.J., U.S.—died May 20, 1885, Newark, N.J.) U.S. politician. Born into a prominent political family, he helped found the New Jersey Republican Party and served as state attorney general (1861–66). He was appointed, then elected, to the U.S. Senate (1866–69, 1871–77). As secretary of state (1881–85) he obtained Pearl Harbor in Hawaii as a U.S. naval base and opened treaty relations with Korea (1882).

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(born Sept. 2, 1877, Eastbourne, Sussex, Eng.—died Sept. 22, 1956, Brighton, Sussex) British chemist. He worked with Ernest Rutherford to develop a theory of the disintegration of radioactive elements. In 1912 he was among the first to conclude that elements might exist in forms (isotopes) of different atomic weights but indistinguishable chemically. In Science and Life (1920) he pointed out the value of isotopes in determining geologic age (see carbon-14 dating). For his investigations of radioactivity and isotopes, he received a 1921 Nobel Prize.

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(born Aug. 13, 1918, Rendcombe, Gloucestershire, Eng.) British biochemist. Educated at the University of Cambridge, he thereafter worked principally at the Medical Research Council in Cambridge (1951–83). He spent 10 years elucidating the structure of the insulin molecule, determining the exact order of all its amino acids by 1955. His techniques for determining the order in which amino acids are linked in proteins made it possible to discover the structure of many other complex proteins. In 1958 he won a Nobel Prize for his work. In 1980 Sanger became the fourth person ever to be awarded a second Nobel Prize, which he shared with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert (b. 1932), for determining the sequences of nucleotides in the DNA molecule of a small virus.

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(born Jan. 22, 1890, Louisa, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 8, 1953, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He served in Congress for all but two years during the period 1923 to 1938. After serving on the U.S. Court of Appeals (1938–43), he held high executive positions, including secretary of the treasury under Pres. Harry Truman. He helped establish the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund. From 1946 to 1953 he was chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. During his tenure he favoured Truman's internal security policies and upheld the equal-protection rights of racial minorities.

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(born July 10, 1792, London, Eng.—died Aug. 9, 1848, Langham, Norfolk) English naval officer and novelist. He served in the Royal Navy from age 14 until he retired in 1830 as a captain. He then began a series of adventure novels—including The King's Own (1830), Peter Simple (1834), and Poor Jack (1840)—marked by a lucid, direct narrative style, humour, and incidents drawn from his varied experience at sea. His Children of the New Forest (1847), set during the English Civil Wars, is a classic of children's literature.

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(born April 26, 1822, Hartford, Conn., U.S.—died Aug. 28, 1903, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. landscape architect. He traveled throughout the American South in the 1850s and won fame for several books describing its slaveholding culture. During an extended vacation in Europe, he became profoundly impressed with English landscaping, which he described in Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England (1852). In 1857 he was hired as superintendent of New York City's newly planned Central Park. With the architect Calvert Vaux (1824–95), he won a competition to design the park, and he became its chief architect in 1858. The result was a nature-lover's paradise incorporating lawns, woods, ponds, and meandering paths; it represented one of the first attempts in the U.S. to apply art to the improvement of nature in a public park. Other Olmsted parks include Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York City; a Niagara Falls, N.Y., park project; an extensive system of parks and parkways in Boston; and the World's Columbian Exposition (later Jackson Park) in Chicago. As chairman of the first Yosemite commission, he helped secure the area as a permanent public park.

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(born Nov. 14, 1861, Portage, Wis., U.S.—died March 14, 1932, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. historian. He taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era. Later he focused on sectionalism as a force in U.S. development. His essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and Significance of Sections in American History (1932, Pulitzer Prize).

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German Friedrich

(born Sept. 21, 1415, Innsbruck, Austria—died Aug. 19, 1493, Linz) Holy Roman emperor from 1452 and king of Germany (as Frederick IV) from 1440. By 1439 he was the senior member of the Habsburg dynasty, and he united the Austrian holdings of two rival branches of the dynasty (partitioned in 1379), helping to lay the foundations for the greatness of the house of Habsburg in European affairs. His greatest achievement was marrying his son Maximilian (later Maximilian I) to Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold, which gave the house of Habsburg a large part of Burgundy and made the Austrians a European power. Frederick was the last emperor to be crowned in Rome by a pope.

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German Friedrich known as Frederick the Great

(born Jan. 24, 1712, Berlin—died Aug. 17, 1786, Potsdam, near Berlin) King of Prussia (1740–86). The son of Frederick William I, he suffered an unhappy early life, subject to his father's capricious bullying. After trying to escape in 1730, he submitted to his father but continued to pursue intellectual and artistic interests. On his father's death (1740), Frederick became king and asserted his leadership. He seized parts of Silesia during the War of the Austrian Succession, strengthening Prussia considerably. He invaded Saxony in 1756 and marched on into Bohemia. Frederick was almost defeated in the Seven Years' War (1756–63), until his admirer Peter III signed a Russo-Prussian peace treaty that lasted until 1780. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 led to enormous territorial gains for Prussia. Austro-Prussian rivalry led to the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–79), a diplomatic victory for Frederick, but continued fear of Habsburg ambitions led him to form a league of German states against Joseph II. Under Frederick's leadership Prussia became one of the great states of Europe, with vastly expanded territories and impressive military strength. In addition to modernizing the army, Frederick also espoused the ideas of enlightened despotism and instituted numerous economic, civil, and social reforms.

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German Friedrich

(born July 11, 1657, Königsberg, Prussia—died Feb. 25, 1713, Berlin, Ger.) King of Prussia (1701–13). In 1688 he succeeded his father, Frederick William, as elector of Brandenburg (as Frederick III). In European politics, Frederick allied himself with Austria, England, and Holland against France. Prussia's contingents in the imperial army distinguished themselves in the wars of the Grand Alliance and in the War of the Spanish Succession. Austria and Prussia signed a secret treaty that permitted Frederick to crown himself king of Prussia, which was obliged to support Austria militarily and in imperial affairs. As a monarchy, Prussia's diverse Hohenzollern lands were turned into provinces, and Frederick freed the new kingdom from imperial control and increased its revenues.

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(born June 26, 1853, London, Eng.—died June 24, 1943, London) British photographer. He first attracted attention as a popular London bookseller and champion of the work of George Bernard Shaw and Aubrey Beardsley. Around 1890 he began to photograph English and French cathedrals, and from 1898 he devoted himself exclusively to photography. His belief that only static views of idealized beauty were worth photographing clashed with the early 20th-century tendency to photograph fleeting images, but his architectural photographs are considered among the world's finest.

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Dutch Frederik Hendrik

(born Jan. 29, 1584, Delft, Holland—died March 14, 1647, The Hague) Third hereditary stadtholder (1625–47) of the Dutch Republic. He succeeded his half brother, Maurice of Nassau, as prince of Orange and count of Nassau. Like his father, William I, Frederick Henry continued the war of independence against Spain. By establishing hereditary succession to the stadtholdership for the house of Orange, he exercised semimonarchical powers. A successful strategist, he was responsible for the United Provinces' foreign policy, beginning negotiations that led to a favourable treaty with Spain in 1648.

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(born June 26, 1853, London, Eng.—died June 24, 1943, London) British photographer. He first attracted attention as a popular London bookseller and champion of the work of George Bernard Shaw and Aubrey Beardsley. Around 1890 he began to photograph English and French cathedrals, and from 1898 he devoted himself exclusively to photography. His belief that only static views of idealized beauty were worth photographing clashed with the early 20th-century tendency to photograph fleeting images, but his architectural photographs are considered among the world's finest.

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orig. Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey

Frederick Douglass.

(born February 1818?, Tuckahoe, Md., U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1895, Washington, D.C.) U.S. abolitionist. The son of a slave mother and a white father, he was sent to work as a house servant in Baltimore, where he learned to read. At age 16 he was returned to the plantation; later he was hired out as a ship caulker. In 1838 he fled to New York City and then to New Bedford, Mass., changing his name to elude slave hunters. His eloquence at an 1841 antislavery convention propelled him into a new career as an agent for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, in which capacity he endured frequent insults and violent personal attacks. In 1845 he wrote his autobiography, now regarded as a classic. To avoid recapture by his owner, whose name he had given in the narrative, he embarked on a speaking tour of England and Ireland (1845–47), returning with enough money to buy his freedom and to start an antislavery newspaper North Star, which he published until 1860 in Rochester, N.Y. In 1851 he split with the radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison and allied himself with moderates led by James Birney. In the American Civil War he was a consultant to Pres. Abraham Lincoln. During Reconstruction he fought for full civil rights for freedmen and supported women's rights. He served in government posts in Washington, D.C. (1877–86), and as U.S. minister to Haiti (1889–91).

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(born April 16, 1881, Powderham Castle, Devonshire, Eng.—died Dec. 23, 1959, Garroby Hall, near York, Yorkshire) British statesman. He was elected to Parliament in 1910. As viceroy of India (1925–31), he worked on terms of understanding with Mohandas K. Gandhi and accelerated constitutional advances. His tenure as foreign secretary (1938–40) in Neville Chamberlain's government was controversial because of Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward Adolf Hitler, but Halifax kept the post into Winston Churchill's ministry. As ambassador to the U.S. (1941–46), he greatly served the Allied cause in World War II, for which he was created earl of Halifax in 1944.

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orig. Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey

Frederick Douglass.

(born February 1818?, Tuckahoe, Md., U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1895, Washington, D.C.) U.S. abolitionist. The son of a slave mother and a white father, he was sent to work as a house servant in Baltimore, where he learned to read. At age 16 he was returned to the plantation; later he was hired out as a ship caulker. In 1838 he fled to New York City and then to New Bedford, Mass., changing his name to elude slave hunters. His eloquence at an 1841 antislavery convention propelled him into a new career as an agent for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, in which capacity he endured frequent insults and violent personal attacks. In 1845 he wrote his autobiography, now regarded as a classic. To avoid recapture by his owner, whose name he had given in the narrative, he embarked on a speaking tour of England and Ireland (1845–47), returning with enough money to buy his freedom and to start an antislavery newspaper North Star, which he published until 1860 in Rochester, N.Y. In 1851 he split with the radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison and allied himself with moderates led by James Birney. In the American Civil War he was a consultant to Pres. Abraham Lincoln. During Reconstruction he fought for full civil rights for freedmen and supported women's rights. He served in government posts in Washington, D.C. (1877–86), and as U.S. minister to Haiti (1889–91).

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known as Buffalo Bill

William Cody, 1916.

(born Feb. 26, 1846, Scott county, Iowa, U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1917, Denver, Colo.) U.S. buffalo hunter, army scout, and Indian fighter. He became a rider for the Pony Express and later served in the American Civil War. In 1867–68 he hunted buffalo to feed construction crews for the Union Pacific Railroad; he became known as Buffalo Bill after slaughtering 4,280 head of buffalo in eight months. He was a scout for the U.S. 5th Cavalry (1868–72, 1876) as it subdued Indian resistance. His exploits, including the scalping of the Cheyenne warrior Yellow Hair in 1876, were chronicled by reporters and novelists, who made him a folk hero. He began acting in dramas about the West, and in 1883 he organized his first Wild West Show, which included stars such as Annie Oakley and Sitting Bull. The show toured in the U.S. and abroad to wide acclaim.

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(born Jan. 12, 1800, London, Eng.—died June 27, 1870, London) British statesman. After serving as British ambassador to Spain (1833–39), he held various cabinet posts until Lord Aberdeen named him secretary of state for foreign affairs in 1853. Clarendon failed to prevent the outbreak of the Crimean War, and his performance during it was undistinguished, but he secured favourable terms for Britain at the Congress of Paris (1856). He continued in office under Lord Palmerston until 1858 and also served as foreign secretary under Earl Russell (1865–66) and William E. Gladstone (1868–70).

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Charles Frederick Worth, detail of an engraving

(born Oct. 13, 1825, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Eng.—died March 10, 1895, Paris, France) British-born French fashion designer. In 1845 he left England, where he had been a bookkeeper, and worked in a Paris dress accessories shop. In 1858 he opened his own ladies' tailor shop and soon gained the patronage of the empress Eugénie. He was a pioneer of the “fashion show” (the preparation and showing of a collection), the first man to become prominent in the field of fashion, and the first designer to create dresses intended to be copied and distributed throughout the world. He became the dictator of Paris fashion and was especially noted for his elegant Second Empire gowns. He invented the bustle, which became standard in women's fashion in the 1870s and '80s.

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(born May 14, 1847, Cornwallis, Nova Scotia—died Jan. 6, 1917, Canning, Nova Scotia, Can.) Canadian politician. After studying at Harvard University, he returned to Nova Scotia to practice medicine. In 1874 he was elected as a Liberal Party member to the House of Commons, where he served almost continuously until 1911. As minister of militia and defense (1896–1911), he improved the training of the armed services and helped create a Canadian navy.

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(born Sept. 26, 1907, Bournemouth, Hampshire, Eng.—died March 26, 1983, London) British art historian and spy. He began his espionage for the Soviet Union after meeting Guy Burgess at the University of Cambridge in the 1930s. From 1937 Blunt had a brilliant career as an art historian, publishing scores of scholarly works that largely established art history in Britain. In World War II he served in British military intelligence and also gave secret information to the Soviets. In 1945 he was appointed surveyor of the king's (later queen's) pictures, and in 1947 he became director of the prestigious Courtauld Institute. He ceased active intelligence work but in 1951 arranged for the escape of Burgess and Donald Maclean (1913–1983) from Britain. In 1964, after the defection of Kim Philby, Blunt was confronted by British authorities and secretly confessed his Soviet connections. When his past as the “fourth man” in the spy ring was made public in 1979, he was stripped of the knighthood awarded him in 1956.

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(born Nov. 14, 1891, Alliston, Ont., Can.—died Feb. 21, 1941, Nfd.) Canadian physician. He taught at the University of Toronto from 1923. With Charles Best, he was the first to obtain a pancreatic extract of insulin (1921), which, in the laboratory of J.J.R. Macleod, they isolated in a form effective against diabetes. Banting and Macleod received a 1923 Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin; Banting voluntarily shared his portion of the prize with Best.

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Frederick Ashton (left) and Robert Helpmann rehearsing their roles as the Ugly Sisters in elipsis

(born Sept. 17, 1904, Guayaquil, Ecua.—died Aug. 18, 1988, Sussex, Eng.) Principal choreographer and director of England's Royal Ballet. After creating ballets from 1925 for the Ballet Club (later Ballet Rambert), he joined the Vic-Wells Ballet (later Royal Ballet) in 1933, becoming principal choreographer, assistant director (1953–63), and director (1963–70). At least 30 of his works remain in its repertoire, including Façade (1931), Symphonic Variations (1946), and Birthday Offering (1956). He also choreographed for companies such as the Royal Danish Ballet (Romeo and Juliet, 1955) and the New York City Ballet (Illuminations, 1950).

Learn more about Ashton, Sir Frederick (William Mallandaine) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 26, 1907, Bournemouth, Hampshire, Eng.—died March 26, 1983, London) British art historian and spy. He began his espionage for the Soviet Union after meeting Guy Burgess at the University of Cambridge in the 1930s. From 1937 Blunt had a brilliant career as an art historian, publishing scores of scholarly works that largely established art history in Britain. In World War II he served in British military intelligence and also gave secret information to the Soviets. In 1945 he was appointed surveyor of the king's (later queen's) pictures, and in 1947 he became director of the prestigious Courtauld Institute. He ceased active intelligence work but in 1951 arranged for the escape of Burgess and Donald Maclean (1913–1983) from Britain. In 1964, after the defection of Kim Philby, Blunt was confronted by British authorities and secretly confessed his Soviet connections. When his past as the “fourth man” in the spy ring was made public in 1979, he was stripped of the knighthood awarded him in 1956.

Learn more about Blunt, Anthony (Frederick) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 24, 1913, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 30, 1967, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He studied art after graduating from Columbia University. He employed several abstract styles in the 1930s and '40s, but by the early 1950s he had restricted his works to monochrome paintings incorporating symmetrically placed squares and oblong shapes against backgrounds of similar colour, in which drawing, line, brushwork, texture, light, and most other visual elements were suppressed. He explained his style as a conscious search for an art that would be entirely separate from life. He influenced the Minimalist movement of the 1960s, more as a polemicist than as a painter.

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The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 170731 March 1751) was a member of the Hanoverian and British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II and father of George III. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was in the direct line of succession to the British throne. He moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father, and became the Prince of Wales. He predeceased his father however, and the throne, upon the death of George II on 25 October 1760, passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, who reigned as King George III from 1760 until 1820.

Frederick served as the tenth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, from 1728 to 1751.

Prince Frederick had a hostile relationship with his parents.

Early life

Prince Frederick Louis (slightly-less commonly rendered Lewis), the grandson of the then Elector of Hanover (later George I) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, was born in Hanover, Germany as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover. His godparents were his grandfather The Elector and his great-uncle The King in Prussia. His parents, Prince George (later George II) and Princess Caroline of Ansbach, were called upon to leave the country when their eldest son was only seven years old, and they did not see him again until he arrived in England in 1728 as a grown man. By then, they had several younger children, and they rejected Frederick both as their son and as a person, referring to him as a "foundling" and nicknaming him "Griff", short for the mythical beast known as a griffin.

His grandfather created him Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham in the county of Kent, Viscount Launceston in the county of Cornwall and Baron Snowdon in the county of Carnarvon, on 26 July 1726.

Prince of Wales

The motives for the ill-feeling between Frederick and his parents may include the fact that he had been set up by his grandfather, even as a small child, as the representative of the house of Hanover, and was used to presiding over official occasions in the absence of his parents. He was not permitted to go to Great Britain until his father took the throne as George II on 11 June 1727. In fact, Frederick continued to be known as Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover (with his British HRH style) even after his father had been created Prince of Wales. Frederick was created Prince of Wales on 8 January 1729.

He had a will of his own and sponsored a court of ‘opposition’ politicians at his residence, Leicester House. Frederick and his group supported the Opera of the Nobility in Lincoln's Inn Fields as a rival to Handel's royally-sponsored opera at the King’s Theatre in Drury Lane. Frederick was a genuine lover of music who played the cello; he is depicted as a cellist in an oil portrait by Philip Mercier of Frederick and his sisters, now part of the National Portrait Gallery collection He enjoyed the natural sciences and the arts, and became a thorn in the side of his parents, thwarting their every ambition and making a point of opposing them in everything, according to the court gossip Lord Hervey. At court, the favourite was Frederick's younger brother, Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, to the extent that the king looked into ways of passing over Frederick in the succession.

A permanent result of Frederick's patronage of the arts is "Rule Britannia", one of the best-known British patriotic songs. It was written by the Scottish poet and playwright James Thomson as part of the masque Alfred which was first performed in 1745 at Cliveden, the country home of the Prince and Princess of Wales.

A masque linking the Prince with both the ancient hero-king Alfred the Great's victories over the Vikings and with the contemporary issue of building up the British sea power obviously went well with Frederick's political plans and aspirations.

Later the words, set to music by Thomas Arne - another of Frederick's favorite artists - got a permanent life of his own regardless of the masque. Thomson, who supported the Prince of Wales politically, also dedicated to him an earlier major work, Liberty (1734).

Patron of the arts

Unlike the king, Frederick was a knowledgeable amateur of painting, who patronized immigrant artists like Amigoni (illustration above right) and Jean Baptiste Vanloo, who painted the portraits of the prince and his consort for Frederick's champion William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath. The list of other artists he employed—Philip Mercier, John Wootton, Phillips and the French engraver Joseph Goupy—represents some of the principal figures of the English Rococo. William Kent's neo-Palladian state barge of 1732 is still preserved, though Sir William Chambers' palace at Kew for his widow Augusta (1757) was demolished in 1802.

Domestic life

Quickly accumulating large debts, Frederick relied for an income on his wealthy friend, George Bubb Dodington. The Prince's father refused to make him the financial allowance that the Prince considered should have been his, and Parliament was obliged to intervene, resulting in further bad feeling between the two.

Although in his youth he was undoubtedly a spendthrift and womaniser, Frederick settled down, on his marriage, in 1736, to the sixteen-year-old Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and soon became a devoted family man, taking his wife and eight children (his youngest daughter was born posthumously) to live in the countryside at Cliveden, since he was effectively banished from court.

Cricket

By the time Frederick arrived in Great Britain, cricket had developed into the country's most popular team sport and it thrived on gambling. Perhaps because he wished to "anglicise" and so fit in with his new society, Frederick developed an academic interest in cricket that soon became a genuine enthusiasm. He began to make wagers and then to patronise and play the sport, even forming his own team on several occasions.

The earliest mention of Frederick in cricket annals is in a contemporary report that concerns a major match on Tuesday 28 September 1731 between Surrey and London, played on Kennington Common. No post-match report was found despite advance promotion as "likely to be the best performance of this kind that has been seen for some time". It is interesting that "for the convenience of the gamesters, the ground is to be staked and roped out" which was a new practice in 1731 and could have been done partly for the benefit of a royal visitor. The advertisement refers to "the whole county of Surrey" as London’s opponents and states that the Prince of Wales is "expected to attend" . In August 1732, the Whitehall Evening Post reported that Frederick attended "a great cricket match" at Kew on Thursday 27 July .

By the 1733 season, he was really getting involved. We read of him giving a guinea to each player in a Surrey v Middlesex game at Moulsey Hurst . Then he awarded a silver cup to a combined Surrey & Middlesex team which had just beaten Kent, arguably the best county team at the time, at Moulsey Hurst on Wed 1 August . This is the first reference in cricket history to any kind of trophy (other than hard cash) being contested. On Friday 31 August, the Prince of Wales' XI played Sir William Gage's XI on Moulsey Hurst. The result is unknown but the teams were said to be of county standard, so presumably it was in effect a Surrey v Sussex match .

In the years following 1733, there are frequent references to the Prince of Wales as a patron of cricket and as an occasional player, though it is doubtful if he was actually any good as a player.

When he died on 31 March 1751, cricket suffered a double impact for his death closely followed that of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, who was the game's greatest patron. The loss of these patrons had an adverse impact on the game’s finances and the number of top-class matches reduced for some years to come, although economic difficulties arising from the wars of the period certainly inhibited many potential investors .

It has frequently been said that the Prince of Wales died as a result of being struck on the head by a cricket ball. He may well have been hit on the head but that did not kill him; the cause of death was a burst abscess in a lung. Cricket has had its share of fatalities in its time, but Prince Frederick Louis was not one of them.

Later life

His political ambitions remained unfulfilled, because he died prematurely at the age of forty-four. The cause of death has been commonly attributed to an abscess created by a blow by a cricket ball or a tennis ball, but a burst abscess in the lung was given as the cause of death. Frederick died at Leicester House in London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 1 February 17071 August 1714: His Serene Highness Prince Frederick of Hanover
  • 1 August 1714–26 July 1726: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick
  • 26 July 1726–11 June 1727: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh
  • 11 June 1727–8 January 1729: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall and Edinburgh
  • 8 January 1729–31 March 1751: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales

Arms

Between his creation as Duke of Edinburgh in 1726 and his creation as Prince of Wales, he bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a cross gules. As Prince of Wales, the difference changed to simply a label argent of three points.

Ancestry

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick 31 August 1737 31 March 1813 married, 1764, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick; had issue
George III 4 June 1738 29 January 1820 married, 1761, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue
Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of York 14 March 1739 17 September 1767
Princess Elizabeth 30 December 1740 4 September 1759
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester 14 November 1743 25 August 1805 married, 1766, Maria Waldegrave, Countess Waldegrave; had issue
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland 27 November 1745 18 September 1790 married, 1771, Anne Horton; no issue
Princess Louisa 8 March 1749 13 May 1768
Prince Frederick 13 May 1750 29 December 1765
Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 11 July 1751 10 May 1775 married, 1766, Christian VII of Denmark; had issue

Legacy

"Here lies poor Fred who was alive and is dead,
Had it been his father I had much rather,
Had it been his sister nobody would have missed her,
Had it been his brother, still better than another,
Had it been the whole generation, so much better for the nation,
But since it is Fred who was alive and is dead,
There is no more to be said!"

References

External links

Bibliography

  • F S Ashley-Cooper, At the Sign of the Wicket: Cricket 1742-1751, Cricket Magazine, 1900
  • G B Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell, 1935
  • Timothy J McCann, Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century, Sussex Record Society, 2004
  • Thomson, Arthur Alexander: Odd Men In: A Gallery of Cricket Eccentics (The Pavilion Library, 1985).
  • H T Waghorn, Cricket Scores, Notes, etc. (1730-1773), Blackwood, 1899
  • H T Waghorn, The Dawn of Cricket, Electric Press, 1906
  • Michael De-la-Noy, The King Who Never Was: The Story of Frederick, Prince of Wales, London; Chester Springs, PA: Peter Owen, 1996.
  • John Walters, The Royal Griffin: Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707-51, London: Jarrolds, 1972.

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