Born in Roxbury, New York, Wilson attended the public schools and the Poughkeepsie Military Academy. He was graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1882. Practiced medicine in Pleasant Valley, New York, until April 1888. He moved to Brooklyn, New York, in 1888 and continued the practice of medicine. Senior physician, a director, and member of the board of governors of the Bushwick Hospital and visiting physician to the Swedish Hospital, both of Brooklyn.
Wilson was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, and Fifty-eighth Congresses (March 4, 1899-March 3, 1905). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1904 to the Fifty-ninth Congress. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1900.
Wilson was elected to the Sixty-second and Sixty-third Congresses (March 4, 1911-March 3, 1915). He was not a candidate for renomination in 1914. He resumed the practice of medicine in Brooklyn, New York, until his death there July 12, 1935. His remains were cremated and the ashes deposited in Roxbury Cemetery, Roxbury, New York.