Talbot was a Captain of the royalist armies during the English Civil War and fought at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. After his first wife and two young sons had died, Shrewsbury (who had succeeded to his father's titles in 1654) married Lady Anna Maria Brudenell, a daughter of the 2nd Earl of Cardigan, on 10 January 1658. On 16 January 1668, he duelled with his wife's lover, George Villiers (later the 2nd Duke of Buckingham) and was killed. His wife is said to have disguised herself as a page and held Villiers' horse during the duel and afterwards slept with him whilst he wore the blood-stained shirt he had been wearing when he killed her husband. The earl was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles.