François-Annibal was the son of Antoine d'Estrées and brother of Gabrielle d'Estrées, the lover of Henry IV of France. He was destined for the church but preferred a military career and joined the army as marquis de Coeuvres where he became Lieutenant General.
In 1624, under Maria of Medici, he was given supreme command over the troops of France, Venice and Savoy, in the conquest of Veltlin. For this, he was given in 1626 the title of Marshal of France. In 1630 he tried in vain to conquer Mantua. In 1632 he was put in command of the Rhine-army, and took Trier.
After his military career he became a diplomat.
Between 1636 and 1648 he was the French envoy in Rome. After this Louis XIV promoted the Marquisat of Coeuvres to the Dukedom of Estrées. François-Annibal was appointed Governor of Île de France and later Soissons.