, multi-ethnic or multi-race groups of Equatorial Guinea
and former Spanish Guinea
with distinct social, cultural and linguistic histories.
The indigenous group of Fernandinos
, also referred to as Emancipados
or Los Fernandinos
, were mixed race descendants of the pre-existing indigenous population of Spanish Guinean
originating from the island of Fernando Pó
(modern day Bioko Island
). This group consisted of mulattoes
of female Bubi
and white male Spaniard
parentage. Incidentally, many offspring born to this type of union were not claimed by the father; however some couples did marry under Roman Catholic
law. It was not uncommon for offspring of such unions to be accepted into the indigenous tribe and identify as such.
Native Fernandinos spoke a colloquial form of Spanish, French, Bube and a form of Pidgin that was once native to the island. The Pidgin spoken may have varied slightly per region; and is either extinct, or evolved into a new type of pidgin.
During colonial rule and during pre-independence civil uprisings, many native Fernandinos settled in places like Annobón, Canary Islands, greater Spain, São Tomé and Príncipe and Cape Verde to avoid social and/or political adversity.
The other Fernandinos
of Equatorial Guinea
descended from English speaking freed slaves of Sierra Leone
who arrived on the island of Fernando Po
. They maintain their own language, Fernando Poo Creole English
, which reflects their main location of Fernando Poo
more recently known as Bioko
Fernando Poo Creole English is derived from the Krio language of Sierra Leone. This group of Fernandinos are exclusively concentrated around Malabo. Although they comprise a distinct ethnic group in Equatorial Guinea, their pidgin dialect is spoken in only six communities (Musola, Las Palmas, Sampaca, Basupu, Fiston and Balveri de Cristo Rey). In 1998 it was estimated that the number of fluent Equatoguinean speakers of this language was at 5,000. For 1,000 of those 5,000 speakers this was their only language. Up to 70,000 EquatoGuineans may currently use it as a trade language.
The majority of Fernandinos are Christian.
- formerly part of the island front named Fernando Pó or Fernando Poo which included Bioko Island.