General Chesarek returned to the United States in July 1945 for detail to the War Department General Staff in Washington, D.C., where he served as a legislative officer in the Logistics Division and received the Army Commendation Medal. From June 1948 to April 1950, General Chesarek attended Stanford University and received his master's degree in Business Administration. He returned to the Pentagon to serve as Assistant to the Chairman, Munitions Board, until February 1953 when he entered the Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk, Virginia.
After graduation in July 1953, General Chesarek went to Korea to serve with the Headquarters, Eighth U.S. Army. He was awarded the Legion of Merit for his work. In May 1954, he took command of the 5th Artillery Group, which consisted of six United States and four Korean artillery battalions. He later received the Order of Ulchi from the Republic of Korea.
In January 1955, General Chesarek was assigned as Chief of the Military Personnel and Manpower Division, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, until August 1955 when he entered the National War College. Following graduation in June 1956, he served as Military Assistant and Executive Officer to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. In addition, he acted as International Conference Coordinator for the Secretary of Defense and participated in twelve major international conferences as a Defense Member of the U.S. delegation. During this assignment, he also attended the Advanced Management Program at Harvard University.
In August 1959, General Chesarek became the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army Communications Zone, Europe. He went to Italy in July 1960 to be Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army Southern European Task Force and was awarded the Order of Republic Medal by the Chief of Staff of the Italian Army. He returned to France in March 1961 for duty as Commanding General, 4th Logistical Command, and received the Legion of Honor from the French Government.
In October 1962, he was assigned to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, first as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (Materiel Readiness) and then, from August 1964, as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (Programs). He was appointed Comptroller of the Army on 1 August 1966 and served in this assignment until 1 August 1967. Upon the reorganization of the Office of the Chief of Staff on 16 February 1967, he was designated the first occupant of the newly created position of Assistant Vice Chief of Staff from February 1967 to May 1968.
One of the highlights of General Chesarek's career was his tour of the United Kingdom in May 1968 as United States 1968 Kermit Roosevelt Lecturer, during which he addressed the students at many British military schools. On 8 July 1968, General Chesarek was appointed Senior U.S. Army Member of the Military Staff Committee of the United Nations, in addition to his primary duty as Assistant Vice Chief of Staff. On 10 March 1969, he was promoted to full general as the second Commanding General, U.S. Army Materiel Command, where he served until retiring in October 1970. General Chesarek died on 20 November 1993.