Touadéra was born in Bangui; his family was originally from Damara, to the north of Bangui. He received his secondary education at the Barthelemy Boganda College in Bangui before attending the University of Bangui and the University of Abidjan. He earned a PhD in pure mathematics at the Lille University of Science and Technology (Lille I) in France and another PhD, also in pure mathematics, at the University of Yaoundé I in Cameroon in 2004. In 1987 he became assistant lecturer of mathematics at the University of Bangui and was vice-dean of the University's Facility of Science from 1989 to 1992. In the latter year he became director of the teachers' training college. He joined the Inter-State Committee for the Standardisation of Mathematics Programs in the French-speaking countries and the Indian Ocean (CIEHPM) in 1999, serving as the President of the Committee from 2001 to 2003. He became Vice-Chancellor of the University of Bangui in May 2004.
Touadéra was appointed Prime Minister by President François Bozizé on 22 January 2008, following the resignation of Élie Doté. His government, composed of 29 members—four ministers of state, 17 ministers, and seven minister delegates, along with himself—was appointed on 28 January.